Evidence That The Earth Is Spherical
- Why is the earth round?
- The circumnavigators are back
- Earth sphere larger than suspected
- “The rising Earth”- The earth rises
- The second face
- The beginnings of the earth
- What is our solar system and how did it form?
- Why is the Earth warm inside?
“What happens if you always go in the same direction? Do you eventually reach the edge of the world or is the world infinite?” More than 2300 years ago, the famous Greek scientist Aristotle was already sure: Neither one nor the other. Because the earth is not flat like a disk, but a sphere – but why? Aristotle already knew: The earth is round! Source: imago stock&people To understand this, you have to go back to the time when the earth was created. The force that was responsible for this is gravity – all massive objects attract each other. This force caused pieces of rock to collide and combine to form a planet. And it gave the planet its shape. This is because gravity acts equally in all directions. After its formation, the Earth was hot and liquid and formed into a sphere. Source: Colourbox Because the Earth was hot and liquid at the beginning, the material could flow into the shape that gravity dictated. If a piece of earth material moved further out somewhere, it was attracted by the rest, until the surface was smooth and the same gravity worked in all places. And since gravity is the same in all directions, the shape of a sphere was automatically created – because only with a sphere are all points on its surface equidistant from the center of gravity. But if you take a close look at the shape of the Earth, you’ll see that it’s not a perfect sphere: it’s slightly flattened at its poles and somewhat bulbous at the equator. This is due to the Earth’s rotation: In the course of 24 hours, the Earth rotates once around its axis. This rotation creates a force, the centrifugal force. We know this from the chain carousel, when we fly outward in the swings. With the earth the centrifugal force causes that the rock masses slide a piece from the rotation axis outward, thus from the poles in the direction of the equator. There, the diameter of the earth is about 41 kilometers larger than between the north and south poles.
The circumnavigators are back
Only one ship survived
6.9.1522 A big reception in the Spanish port of Sanlúcar: After almost three years, the “Victoria” returns from its expedition. But the joy is clouded. Of the five ships in the fleet, only this one returns, and of the 237 crew, only 18 have survived. The leader of the expedition, the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan (42) also died on the way. Thus, he could not experience the great triumph himself: His expedition succeeded in completely circumnavigating the world for the first time in the history of mankind! Ferdinand Magellan set out from Seville with his five ships on August 10, 1519. He was on his way on behalf of the Spanish crown to find the western route to the lucrative Spice Islands in the Pacific Ocean. This was necessary after the rival sea power Portugal had seized the sea route in an easterly direction around the African Cape of Good Hope for itself. At the southern tip of South America, Magellan and his crew discovered the long-awaited “Gateway to the West” after an arduous search. At the end of November 1520, they sailed through a narrow, 600-kilometer-long strait into the Pacific Ocean. But setbacks were not absent. In an attempt to capture islands in the newly discovered Philippines for the Spanish crown, Captain Magellan fell victim to the lances and poisoned arrows of the natives. Numerous crew members died with him in the fighting, others already in the months before from the catastrophic supply situation on the ships. One crew member reported that they had to live on leather boiled in salt water and rats. Many died of scurvy. But the survivors can be proud of themselves. They are the first people to travel once around the world. Thus they provided the final proof: The earth is a sphere. And in addition to fame, honor and knowledge, they brought home over 26 tons of valuable spices. Magellan Strait Source: imago stock&people Ferdinand Magellan Source: imago stock&people Column of Columbus in Barcelona Source: imago/imagebroker
Globe larger than assumed
The log entries of the “Victoria” will now give scientists some homework to do. It seems that until now, the circumference of the Earth has been underestimated. The most prominent victim of this misjudgement was Christopher Columbus. He also wanted to find the western route to India, but assumed about a quarter less circumference of the earth. At that time, nothing at all was known about the new continent in the west, Asia was considered too large and the Pacific Ocean too small. Therefore, when he came across the Bahamas in 1492, he was firmly convinced to have discovered “India”. Now it looks as if the Greek scientist Eratosthenes should be right. Already in 240 B.C. he had made measurements with the simplest methods and calculated a circumference of the earth of about forty thousand kilometers.
“The rising Earth” – The earth rises
24.12.1968 Wrong world – over the moon horizon the earth rises. On Christmas Eve 1968, the American astronaut William Anders took this famous photo. Together with Frank Borman and James Lovell he circled the moon several times on the Apollo 8 mission. When their space capsule came out from behind the moon again during one of these orbits, they saw the Earth’s sphere emerge from behind the lunar horizon. They were deeply impressed by this sight and took several photos – although Anders jokingly remarked that this was not planned in the mission plan. A real “earth rise” – as we see the moon rising while standing on the earth – cannot be experienced on the moon’s surface. Because the moon always turns the same side to the earth. If you are on this side, you see the earth all the time – and also always at the same place in the sky. And from the back of the moon, the Earth can never be seen. “The rising Earth” Source: NASA The first photo of the moon’s far side Source: NASA/NSSDC
The second face
The moon shows itself from a completely new side: On October 7, 1959, the Russian probe “Luna 3” took the first photo of the back side of the moon. However, the world had to wait eleven more days for this historic photo: Only when the probe flew back towards Earth was the radio connection good enough to send the picture. At first glance, the image does not look very spectacular. The resolution is poor, and since the sun shines almost vertically on the lunar surface, no shadows of mountains and craters can be seen. But there was one surprise: On the back side the moon has much less dark spots than on the front side. About the reason astronomers puzzle until today! Up to this photo mankind had no idea, how it looks there. Because from the earth one sees always only the same side of the moon.
The beginnings of the earth
We would not recognize the earth immediately after its formation. It was an extremely uncomfortable planet: There were neither continents nor oceans, but a bubbling surface of glowing hot, viscous magma. Why could no earth crust form for a long time? A glowing ball of rock: The freshly formed Earth Source: Colourbox A good 4.5 billion years ago, comets, asteroids, gas and dust condensed to form our planet. The own gravity pressed these individual parts together, so that they were exposed to a strong pressure. This pressure was naturally highest in the earth’s core, on which the weight of the entire outer layers weighed. As a result of the high pressure, the rock was strongly heated and melted. Towards the outside, the pressure and thus also the temperature became less. Nevertheless, the earth’s surface remained very hot for several hundred million years and could not cool down and solidify. Meteorite impacts heat up the young planet Source: Colourbox To understand the reason for this, scientists had to look at the moon: Ancient lunar craters from the formation of the solar system tell us that the moon was hit by numerous meteorites in its young years. It is therefore assumed that the Earth was also subjected to a veritable rock bombardment from space at the same time. The chunks fell with high speed on the earth – and the impacts were accordingly violent: Even chunks of a few hundred tons could easily cause an explosion as powerful as an atomic bomb! Volcanic eruptions show that the Earth’s interior is still hot and liquid. Source: Colourbox So the earth’s surface was still heated up for a long time, again and again stirred up and remained so liquid. Only after a few hundred million years, when the impacts gradually subsided, did the temperatures on the Earth’s surface drop. The rock was able to solidify slowly and form an earth’s crust, which became thicker and thicker in the course of further millions of years. But to this day, it is only a paper-thin layer floating on a viscous, hot interior of the Earth.
What is our solar system and how did it form?
The Earth is not alone in space: For a long time, people have been observing the sun, moon and stars in the sky. In the process, they discovered early on that some stars move. These wandering stars were observed and their paths followed. But for a long time, their movements were not understood – until about five hundred years ago, when a man named Nicolaus Copernicus solved the mystery: the Earth and the “wandering stars” are actually planets, all orbiting the Sun at different distances. The arrangement of the planets Source: Colourbox Today we know eight planets. To remember their names in the correct order, the first letters of the sentence “Ma Vater eelucidates mir jeden Son Sunday un our Neighth sky.” – or in short: M-V-E-M-J-S-U-N. This is how you have to imagine the formation of the solar system Source: NASA/JPL Merkur is the planet orbiting closest to the Sun. Then come Venus, Erde and Mars. These four inner planets have a solid surface of rock and are still relatively close to the Sun – only a few hundred million kilometers. Further out, orbiting at a distance of about one to 4.5 billion kilometers from the sun, the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn with its rings, Uranus and on the outside Neptun. They are made of gas (mainly hydrogen and helium) and are much larger than the inner planets. Jupiter and Saturn are about ten times the size of Earth, which is why they are called the Gas Giants. Finally, there are asteroids, comets, and dust clouds that also orbit the sun. The gravitational pull of the sun holds all these celestial bodies together, forcing them to fly in circles as if on a long leash. All together they are called the Solar System. Also the moons belong to it – but they are held by the attraction of the planets. But why does the sun have planets at all? This is related to how the sun was formed: a cloud of gas and dust contracted by its own gravity and became a star. But not all the material of this cloud was “built up” in the star – about one percent remained. And when the sun then began to shine, the radiation pushed the remaining matter back outward. The lighter gases were pushed far outward in the process, while the heavier dust and chunks of rock remained near the sun. From these dust and gas clouds the planets developed in the course of the time. Therefore there are in the solar system outside the gas planets, further inside the rock planets – under it our earth – and completely in the center the sun. It contains 99% of the mass of the solar system and holds everything together with its gravity.
Why is the earth warm inside?
The liquid interior of the earth bubbles under our feet. Volcanic eruptions and geysers show the heat that prevails there – over 6000 degrees Celsius in the earth’s core. But why is it actually so hot in the earth? The earth was first a glowing sphere after its formation. Source: Colourbox Much of the heat still comes from the Earth’s infancy, when dust and chunks of rock condensed to form a planet. The word “compact” sounds a bit too innocuous, though: In reality, you have to think of it as many large meteorite impacts – each impact a gigantic explosion that heated up the young planet and melted the material. Meteorite impacts heated the young Earth even more. Source: Colourbox Since then, things have calmed down a bit and the Earth is cooling down again. However, it is doing so extremely slowly; the heat in the Earth’s interior can only escape into space very slowly. Hot magma flows in the tough mantle of the earth transport the heat upwards. There, it remains trapped under the rigid crust of the Earth as if under a lid. Only slowly does the crustal rock release the heat into space. In addition, heat is still being produced inside the Earth. This is due to the fact that the earth has a lot of radioactive substances such as uranium in its core. Since the formation of our planet they decay and give off heat over a very long period of time. This “fuel” will last for many billions of years. The earth is a sphere. One thought at least so far. But “flat earth supporters” are convinced of it: Our planet is in reality a disk. Due to numerous inquiries, which is correct now, we examined this times more near. We have become more and more ardent supporters of the disk theory. Because we found out: There are actually numerous irrefutable proofs for the disk form of the earth! These include missing felt-tip pen traces along the entire equator, strange voices from the navigation system in the car and also mysterious detours of airplanes! But before you read on, first look up on the web what a satire or gloss is – just so there are no misunderstandings with this article! The picture shows quite clearly: During the day it is bright everywhere on earth, nowhere it is dark. And so that nobody misunderstands this article, we have now also attached a large sign in the orbit around the earth disk. Original image: NASA Here is a first striking argument against the spherical shape of the Earth: If the Earth were really a sphere, there would have to be regions where it is daytime, while elsewhere it would still be dark. After all, a light source like the sun cannot illuminate the entire sphere at the same time. This can be easily checked with a flashlight and a small ball: While one half of the ball is brightly illuminated, the other is in the dark. Now imagine how this alleged globe rotates around its own axis: As a result, the boundary between the bright day side and the dark night side should gradually move across the globe. The day would then begin first in Asia, then in Europe and later also in America, because the sun would rise there at different times. One would probably even have to set up different time zones so that, for example, it would not be 12 o’clock at noon in the USA as it is here in Europe, although it is just getting light over there! But as we all know, that’s not how it is. Rather, the sun, as soon as it has climbed over the edge of the earth’s disk, bathes our entire world in bright light. Everywhere – whether in Beijing, Cologne or Los Angeles – the day begins at the same second, everywhere it is noon at the same time. And in the evening, the sun sets at the same moment everywhere. After all, New Year’s Day is celebrated and fireworks are set off at the same time all over the world, not in Australia and many hours later in our country – precisely because the first day of the new year starts at the same time as all days worldwide. You can easily try this out yourself, too, if you exchange the ball for a flat saucer or a small plate: first hold the flashlight sun under the plate from some distance, then slowly take it higher – and bingo: as soon as the flashlight appears above the rim, it’s bright all over the top. What’s beyond the horizon Anyone who has ever been out at sea on a ship – on a cruise, for example – knows that far from land, all you can see all around is water! When the ship then approaches a port, the coast appears on the horizon, which you have not seen before. The deceitful flat earth opponents claim that this would prove the spherical shape of the earth: Because one sees with every kilometer, which one is on the way in the direction of horizon, things, which were before behind the horizon line and which one could not see first because of the curvature of the earth surface. Columbus’ four voyages to America. The map proves: Actually, Columbus would not have had to search long, because America is easily visible from Europe on our flat earth disk. Probably he was short-sighted. Image: Wikipedia Curvature of the Earth’s surface? Bah! We almost fell for this argument! But of course it is not true! On our flat disk earth you can see everything: the whole earth up to the edge of the disk! Except with fog or if mountains block the view or if one closes the eyes. Why is it then that on the high seas, far from land, you can’t see any coastline, when the surface of the water is completely flat and nothing obstructs your view? You just have to look more closely! Actually Columbus – if he had not been so damned short-sighted – would not have had to sail across the sea and search for a long time where this America lies: If he had gone to the optician in time or if he had bought a telescope and looked a little better – well, then he would have seen America from Madrid before he even set sail! Or was that Milan? Never mind, the main thing is Italy. Missing navigation satellites This is how navigation satellites are supposed to orbit the globe. Picture: ESA Supporters of the sphere theory claim that there is such a thing as satellites! Yes, inconceivable – but it gets even worse: These (räusper) “satellites” would orbit the (again räusper) “globe”. 20 to 30 of such satellites allegedly permanently send signals to the earth, which are received by so-called “Navis” in the car. Only times in between the reference: With a disk earth much less satellites are necessary, which shows once more the enormous advantages opposite the alleged spherical form. Anyway: From the time these satellite signals travel to the earth, the exact position of the car could then be determined – always according to the sphere theory. So we would know where we are at the moment and which way we would have to take to reach our destination. A navigation device in a car. Photo: DLR This is nonsense, of course, because the earth is not a sphere, but a disc! There are neither satellites nor navigation systems! All inventions of the sphere theorists! You might ask yourself: How is it that the voice from the navigation system shows us the way and often guides us correctly to our destination? Well, probably there are people who know the place, who have been shrunk with laser cannons or other nasty methods beforehand, in the navis – and they call out to us desperately “now please turn right” or “follow the main road”, because they will be punished if the swindle is discovered. Perhaps they are also bullet theorists themselves who have voluntarily allowed themselves to be shrunk out of delusion! We don’t accept the objection that you can see maps on the navi’s display that keep updating themselves on the way, depending on where you are: The little navi occupants probably draw this from the inside on the screen, which is actually a simple glass pane (or one of those magic boards that used to be available for children, where colorful lines appeared when you stroked over it with a plastic stick). Angle: the mathematical proof The sketch on the left shows a flat surface: Here, the interior angles of a triangle always add up to 180 degrees. On the right is a triangle on a sphere, where the sum of the angles is larger due to the spherical shape. In a triangle, the three angles where the sides touch always add up to 180 degrees. This is the so-called sum of angles. You can easily measure this on a sheet of paper with a simple set square. But this is only true for flat surfaces. On a sphere, this angle sum is larger because the lines and angles are distorted. Up to this point, flat earth and sphere theorists agree for once. But this also means: If the earth were really a sphere, then a triangle with three very long sides (on short distances it makes no difference) such as the equator, the prime meridian and the 90th degree of longitude would have to have an angle sum of 270 degrees. So far so good. The sphere theorists could therefore easily prove that they are right: All they would have to do is draw these lines on the Earth’s surface with a slightly thicker felt-tip pen and then measure the angles. But nobody does that! Nowhere along the equator – we have walked the entire distance several times and checked it on the spot – is there any felt-tip line! Not even on the surface of the sea – and the fact that you can’t draw a line on the water there is a lazy excuse, because as we know there are waterproof pens! So: Why don’t the sphere-conspirators start this simple proof? The answer is obvious: Because it is just not so, as they claim! Pilots fly detours on purpose! Here is another proof, which is about the shortest way between two places like Frankfurt and New York. If you take a flat map and draw a dead straight line – that is the shortest distance between two points – it shows: It leads straight across the mid-Atlantic. But the amazing thing is: In reality, airplanes take a completely different route between the two places, namely far across the northern Atlantic (sometimes almost so far north that you can see the tip of Greenland if you have a window seat and don’t have to fight for the armrest with your seatmates in such a stupid middle seat). The reason given for this is, of course, that the earth is a sphere. The airline from Frankfurt to New York. On the left, the shortest flight route on a two-dimensional earth, on the right, on a three-dimensional globe. The question is: Why do almost all pilots take the “crooked” path shown on the right, although our earth is flat and the direct route (left) would be much shorter? Well, one could almost fall for this mean trick, too: Because with a spherical shape – as it can be seen well on a globe – the shortest way would indeed be the northern route. You can easily check this by stretching a thread between both places and comparing the different flight routes (the thread on the globe is sufficient, you don’t have to stretch it over the real Atlantic Ocean, which would be even more meaningful, of course, but would also involve the danger of losing the thread, as it almost happened to us with this sentence, which just doesn’t want to end, although it is only in brackets, if we hadn’t gotten our act together now). But since the earth is not a sphere – why do the pilots fly these enormous detours? After all, this costs a lot of fuel and therefore money. So why don’t they take the shorter way, which is of course the direct line on our beloved flat earth? We assume that all pilots of the world make common cause and want to maintain the belief in the globe by their absurd detours – perhaps because they are manipulated by radio communication with thought rays and cannot protect themselves against it even with alu hats, perhaps because they simply like to fly longer! And also all globe manufacturing companies are certainly in cahoots with the pilots! Maybe even the conductors of the Trans-Siberian Railway and various ski lift owners – but that is another story … Seasons and Alien Fried Potatoes Explanation of the seasons according to the globe model. The red dot symbolizes a place in Europe. Allegedly, the seasons are caused by the fact that the earth orbits the sun. And since the axis of the globe is slightly tilted and always stubbornly tilted in the same direction, no matter where the earth is on its orbit around the sun, sometimes the northern and sometimes the southern hemisphere of our planet points towards the sun, so that more heat then arrives in these regions. The sphere scientists say all this. How complicated is that please? Nobody understands that. The explanation is much simpler with a disk earth: The sun (in reality much closer to the earth than always is maintained) circles like a heater closely over the disk and warms up so sometimes this, sometimes that region. Where it hovers just over the disk, it is warmer and therefore summer. And because the sun not only radiates heat but also light onto the earth’s disk, it is always daytime in summer and nighttime in winter. Or in other words: days exist only in summer, nights only in winter. Therefore all days are always and everywhere summer days – also in the alleged winter, which cannot exist at all during the day (which is why, by the way, there are also no longer really deep snowy winters as in former times, which explains quite incidentally also the climate change). Apropos “by the way”: We ask the reader at this point to ignore the contradiction of this explanation model of a sun circling above the earth’s disk with the above mentioned idea of a sun which illuminates the whole earth’s disk during the day and disappears under the edge of the disk at night. We are working on somehow still bending these details so that it fits halfway. Satellite image of the sun. On the left, you can see suspicious fumes that could well be from an alien frying pan drive. Image: NASA In any case: In order for the sun to constantly flit in circles over the Earth’s disk and make it daytime here and there, it naturally needs some kind of drive (the Earth sphere theory actually has it much easier in that it lets the sun and all the planets simply float around in space and attract each other). But there are finally heat-resistant materials, as known from frying pans, which do not melt on the hot stove plate. So why shouldn’t the sun have engines made of such temperature-resistant materials? Perhaps the pan drives were screwed by any aliens to the sun surface (logically with heat-resistant screws) and the aliens prepare there tasty roast potatoes! Before onion rings in plentifully butter roast, the potatoes in alien finger-thick slices cut and easily salt – simply delicious! Or the aliens sizzle themselves there fried eggs, which succeed by the way particularly well, if one puts in the last minute again the lid on the pan and sprinkles afterwards some parsley over it! In this connection the old word play is permitted: If your last name is “Silie,” please don’t call your son Peter. Okay, now that leads off the disc earth a bit – even if the fried eggs and the joke are just as shallow. And the alien frying pan theory (ABT for short) is admittedly somewhat speculative and not yet conclusively confirmed – but on the other hand not completely ruled out either! Stop with the old mnemonic! The planets of our solar system – as scientists want to “sell” it to us. Picture: NASA That other pans … er, excuse, … planets like Venus and Mars then also need their own sun, because ours whizzes around close above the Earth’s disk and logically cannot be everywhere at the same time, goes without saying. The solar system has therefore not only eight planets, but also eight suns. Therefore we point out finally that also the mnemonic about the order of the planets must be changed urgently! So far it reads: “My father explains our night sky to me every Sunday”, where the initial letters like M, V, E etc. stand for Mercury, Venus, Earth – in the order of the planets from the inside to the outside. Apart from the fact that no father explains the night sky every Sunday and no child could bear that in the long run without taking mental damage: The order is simply nonsense, since there is not only one sun as just proved! With many suns, however, the order doesn’t matter at all – and the mnemonic sentence could then be rearranged arbitrarily and read for example: “Yes now! Some people tell completely stupid nonsense.” By the way: we will continue this series! Read soon: “Fraud: Even Christmas tree balls and Easter eggs in truth only discs!” and “Player confesses: We had to fake spherical shape of soccer discs!”. If you also have a question, send it to us at: [email protected] We’ll be sure to write back – and we’ll also answer particularly interesting questions publicly here.
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