Bp Full Meaning

The year of recognition follows the school-based training to become a state-certified educator. Before the year of recognition can be completed, trainees must pass the examinations set by the vocational schools or academies with a certain grade point average. The year of recognition itself also ends with an examination, which usually has a practical reference to one year’s work in a socio-educational institution. In most cases, trainee educators must take a colloquium and pass a written and/or oral examination. The terms “year of recognition” and “professional internship” are usually used synonymously in connection with educator training. Depending on the federal state and the technical college, one or the other term is more common. When the professional internship has been successfully completed and all relevant examinations have been passed, graduates may call themselves “state-approved educator” and immediately start working as a specialist in socio-pedagogical institutions such as kindergartens, daycare centers, youth facilities, homes or in school supervision. They will receive a final certificate with an overview of their final academic and practical grades, as well as a certificate attesting to their state recognition. On our job portal, you will also find job offers for the year of recognition The year of recognition must be completed in a social pedagogical institution, which is usually located within a certain radius starting from the respective technical school or technical academy for social pedagogy. The prospective educators may and must look for their internship place for the professional internship themselves. The prerequisite is that they can work full-time in the respective facility, i.e. 30 to 40 hours per week. In addition, children or young people between the ages of 0 and 18 must be cared for there and a pedagogical specialist must be prepared to provide professional guidance for the vocational interns. The interns sign a contract with the sponsor of the respective facility, in which working hours, notice periods, salary, etc. are regulated. In addition, the internship center must usually also conclude a contract with the supervising technical school. Many institutions advertise vacancies for trainees every year. Interested parties can then find these in the local newspapers as well as in the job exchange of the employment agency. Since this is a remunerated internship, prospective educators must apply for advertised positions in writing and provide all relevant proof and certificates. Afterwards, you may be invited to an interview and should observe a few hours at the respective facility to get to know the colleagues and the daily work routine.

How long does the professional internship last?

The professional internship usually lasts twelve months and begins between July 1 and September 1 of a year, depending on the federal state. In some federal states, it is possible to shorten the year of recognition to six months if the prospective educators have already worked in a socio-educational institution for a longer period of time before the start of training and have corresponding practical experience. In some countries, it is also possible to skip the year of recognition completely if the trainee has already completed a relevant initial training course, e.g. as a nursery nurse, prior to training as an educator. Some technical colleges allow their trainees to complete the year of recognition on a part-time basis. It is then extended by a further year, as the minimum number of practical hours completed must be achieved. The professional internship does not necessarily have to be completed immediately after the end of the school-based training. In some federal states, however, deadlines must be met within which the year of recognition should be successfully completed in order for the entire training to be considered passed.

What is the salary during the year of recognition for educators?

The year of recognition or professional internship is paid, but the future educators are still in training and do not receive the full salary of a state-certified educator. How high the salary is in the professional internship depends on the carrier of the respective institution and of course also on the number of weekly working hours. In a municipal institution, professional trainees receive a monthly salary of around 1600 euros gross (as of February 2022), because the salary is fixed by collective agreement, at least in the public sector. Other institutions, however, usually follow the TVöD. Important to know: The professional internship is only completed in the classic, full-time school-based educator training. In the case of PiA training, the prospective educators are employed in a socio-educational institution from the start of training and receive remuneration. This is now also regulated by collective agreements. The first two years of traditional training are not remunerated, but students can apply for the so-called Aufstiegs-BAföG, a monthly grant with high allowances that are not repaid.

How does the professional internship work?

The vocational internship is supervised by the school providing the training. This means that although the trainees spend the majority of their time at the respective practical institution, they continue to acquire theoretical knowledge. The school-based teaching units are offered one day per week or alternatively as part of compact courses. These then take place every few months, but then last several days or a week. During the working hours at the respective facility, the interns can be deployed as a second assistant, so they have a similar status to, for example, childcare workers. In addition to their daily duties, however, the prospective educators must also complete tasks specified by the school and prepare assignments. They also have to complete practical pedagogical tasks, such as projects and guided activities. Pedagogical activities and their own role are constantly reflected upon together with the practical supervisor. In addition, teacher visits take place on a regular basis. The specialist teachers at the training schools observe and evaluate the interns in their work. The practical grades determine whether the interns are admitted to the final examination at the end of the internship. In terms of content and organization, the vocational internship differs considerably from state to state in some cases, as education and training are the responsibility of the states and not the federal government. Image: https://www.shutterstock.com/de/image-photo/mother-looking-her-creative-kid-663695272

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Alleles

Alternative forms of a gene that occur at corresponding gene loci of homologous chromosomes. Within the population, many different alleles that can be classified as normal often occur (called multiple alleles). The differences in alleles are caused by sequence variations (polymorphism), which need not be important for the function of the corresponding gene product. An individual usually inherits one allele of a gene from the mother and one from the father. If these alleles are identical, the individual is called homozygous for this allele, if they are different, the individual is called heterozygous.

Investment carrier

Carrier of a mutation in one allele of a gene (= heterozygous). In these cases, the mutation in one allele is usually not sufficient for the clinical manifestation of the disease. In autosomal recessive inheritance, clinical manifestation only occurs when the second allele is also altered by a mutation.

Anticipation

If a hereditary disease manifests itself earlier and earlier in successive generations, this is called genetic anticipation.

Autosomes

Another word for this is “body chromosomes”. These are chromosomes that are not involved in the formation of the sex.

Chromosome

Chromosomes are the carriers of genetic information in the cell nucleus. They are carriers of many genes or alleles, which are located at different gene loci on the chromosome. They consist of a long, continuous strand of DNA and proteins, which has the shape of a double helix. If no nuclear division takes place, the chromosomes are present in a relaxed, uncoiled state, as long DNA threads. In order to divide, the DNA strand present in the nucleus must first duplicate and join with the newly formed strand. Only during nuclear division do the chromosomes become visible under the microscope, as the strands shorten by spiraling into a compact transport form. Thus, at the beginning of nuclear division, chromosomes consist of two identical DNA strands that have spiraled to form two “chromosome arms” (chromatids) (two-chromatid chromosome). The junction of the two chromatids is called the centromere. After successful nuclear division, the chromosomes again consist of only one chromatid / DNA strand (one-chromatid chromosome) and double again after some time.

Chromosome aberration / chromosome deviation / chromosome anomaly.

A deviation in the structure or number of chromosomes in a genome.

Contiguous gene syndromes

These are very small chromosomal malformations (mostly deletions or duplications) characterized by a specific complex appearance (phenotype). The causally affected DNA segment comprises several contiguous genes in a chomosomal region that contribute independently to the appearance.

Direct diagnostics

If the localization and nucleotide sequence (sequence of the chemical building blocks of DNA and RNA) of the gene affected in a hereditary disease is known, the mutation in this gene can be identified directly in patients and carriers.

Disomy, uniparental

This refers to the presence of two homologous (identical) chromosomes or chromosome segments (partial disomy), both inherited from one parent.

Deletion

Absence of a chromosome or DNA segment. Interstitial deletion means loss of fragments within a chromosome in contrast to terminal deletion, where end segments of a chromosome are lost.

De novo deletion / de novo mutation

Deletion / mutation not inherited from one of the parents but newly occurring in the affected individual.

DNA methylation

Term for the electrostatic attraction between two atoms (covalent bonding) of a methyl radical to certain bases of DNA. Methyl radicals are the simplest atomic arrangement in organic chemistry of carbon and hydrogen molecules. In human cells, only cytosine residues (5-methyl cytosine) are methylated in CG dinucleotides. DNA methylation has an important function in cells with a nucleus (eukaryotic cells) because it is involved in the organization of DNA structure and in the regulation of genes.

DNA replication

See Replication.

Dominant hereditary factor

Dominant means “dominating”. A dominant hereditary factor in the case of “heterozygous” alleles prevails over a recessive hereditary factor in the expression of the trait. Recessive means “receding”. Thus, the allele must be present only singly.

Duplication

Two occurrences of the same chromosome segment or gene in the single (haploid) chromosome set.

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant inheritance

Mode of inheritance in which a trait is already expressed when the triggering allele is present only singly (heterozygous). The corresponding gene is located on an autosome (not on a sex chromosome) and is inherited independently of sex. Offspring of an affected person have a 50 percent risk of inheriting the triggering allele and also being trait carriers.

Autosomal recessive inheritance

Mode of inheritance in which a trait only occurs if the triggering allele is present in duplicate (= homozygosity). Heterozygous gene carriers (allele only present once) are usually not clinically recognizable; they are referred to as investment carriers. The corresponding gene is located on an autosome and is inherited independently of sex. Heterozygous, clinically healthy parents each have a 25 percent risk of having an affected child.

X-linked recessive inheritance

Inheritance in which the causative gene is located on the X chromosome and leads to the expression of the trait in males (hemizygous). Females are only trait carriers if they have inherited the causative allele twice (homozygous). Heterozygous (single allele) affected females usually do not show clinical symptoms, but are carriers for the trait and have a 50 percent risk of affected sons and daughters, who in turn are carriers.

X-linked dominant inheritance

Inheritance in which the gene is located on the X chromosome and the corresponding trait is expressed in the presence of only one triggering allele. In contrast to the X-linked recessive mode of inheritance, heterozygous females are affected in addition to hemizygous males (allele is located on the X chromosome, which occurs only once in the otherwise duplicated set of chromosomes), in whom the allele is present singly.

Exon

DNA segment of a eukaryotic gene (forms cells with a nucleus) that carries information for the corresponding protein. Between the exons of a gene are the non-coding DNA segments, the so-called introns.

Expression

see Gene expression.

Expressivity

Type and extent of phenotypic expression (appearance) of a penetrant gene (see also Penetrance).

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

Molecular cytogenetic method for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, (micro)deletions, chromosomal localization, or copy number of a gene. In the first step, biotinylated nucleotides (DNA building blocks that have formed a bond with a specific vitamin) are incorporated into specific DNA probes. Specific DNA probes are short, single-stranded DNA fragments that are used to detect complementary DNA or RNA sequences. After subsequent hybridization of metaphase cells with these probes, they are visualized with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled avidin, a special protein. The number and localization of the detectable fluorescent dots coincides with the number of gene copies (usually 2) and their chromosomal localization.

Gel electrophoresis

DNA molecules carry negative charges, allowing movement of the molecules in the electric field. If this movement occurs within a suitable matrix (agarose or polyacrylamide), DNA molecules migrate according to their molecular weight and can be separated according to size.

Gene dosage

All autosomal genes, i.e. all genes that are not involved in sex formation, are present in the genome in duplicate copies. Many genes must also be expressed from both alleles to maintain normal cell function. For example, if one allele of a gene is lost, half the gene dosage may not be sufficient for normal cell function.

Gene expression

Term for all processes in which, starting from the nucleotide sequence of a gene, a copy is produced by transcription in the form of RNA (messenger RNA) and the corresponding protein (gene product) is subsequently synthesized by translation.

Gene locus

Physical position where an allele is located on a chromosome.

Haplotype analysis

In haplotype analysis, the inheritance of a chromosomal region within a family can be traced with the help of so-called polymorphic DNA markers. Even if within this region the exact location and sequence of the gene causing the disease is unknown, the inheritance of the mutation can be indirectly inferred by knowing the inheritance of the chromosomal region. Similarly, if a gene is known, an unknown mutation can be indirectly detected. This approach is chosen when direct mutation search in the corresponding gene is too costly. Haplotype analysis is a family investigation. Therefore, it is necessary that as many family members as possible participate in addition to the affected person(s) themselves.

Heterolog

Heterologous means “different” or “deviant.” It is the opposite of homologous. Heterolog means that the chromosomes of a chromosome pair from a diploid chromosome set (one maternal and one paternal chromosome) differ from each other.

Homolog

Homolog means “homologous.” Homologous chromosome pairs mean that each chromosome in a human cell is present in duplicate (one maternal and one paternal chromosome).

Imprinting, genomic

An imprinting of specific genes that occurs during early embryonic development, depending on whether they are of maternal or paternal origin. Depending on the parental origin of the genes, imprinting causes their different gene activity, i.e. a few genes are active only on chromosomes inherited from the mother, other genes only on chromosomes inherited from the father. On a biochemical level, imprinting is probably due to methylation of DNA.

Imprinting mutation

In some disease patterns, decreased or increased methylation of DNA can be detected, which is thought to be disease-causing. The mutations that lead to impaired methylation are called imprinting mutations.

Indirect diagnostics

If the chromosomal location of a gene affected in a genetic disease is known but the gene itself has not yet been isolated, or if a known gene is so large that not every mutation can be detected directly, a genetic defect can be diagnosed indirectly. See Haplotype analysis.

Index patient

In cases of e.g. autosomal dominant inheritance, the molecular genetic examination of a hereditary defect is initially performed in only one affected family member (= index patient), since the disease is very likely to be caused by the same mutation in the other affected family members. Only after identification of the mutation causing the disease in the index patient are the other family members specifically tested for this mutation.

Intron

Non-information-carrying DNA segment of a eukaryotic gene (forms cells with a cell nucleus), which is located between exons.

Karyotype

Chromosome set of an individual, defined both by the number of chromosomes and by their microscopic shape and structure in mitotic metaphase (phase of cell nucleus division = mitosis).

Karyogram

Pairwise arrangement of homologous chromosomes according to length, position of the centromere (constriction cell) and according to the pattern of chromosome bands for systematic analysis of chromosomes.

Germline mutation

A mutation that originated in the germline (egg or sperm) of a parent. If it is passed on to a child (50 percent probability), it is detectable in all cells of the child’s body (again, including cells of the germline).

Conductor

z. E.g. hemophilia A: If a woman carries a mutation in one allele of the factor VIII gene (= heterozygous), she is not clinically affected by the disease. However, she is a carrier or Conductor for the disease because it has a 50 percent risk of affected male offspring and for daughters with conductor traits.

Microdeletion

Cytogenetically usually undetectable small deletion (<2Mb) that can be detected by FISH or other molecular genetic methods.

Mismatch-repair

During DNA replication (see: Replication), such as incorrect base pairing (=mismatch), are corrected in the nucleus by an enzyme complex.

Monogenic

Diseases caused by mutations in a specific gene are called monogenic hereditary diseases. To date, about 6000 such diseases have been described.

Monosomy

Monosomy means the absence of one or more single chromosomes in an otherwise diploid set of chromosomes (each containing two homologous chromosomes). In interstitial monosomy, only one fragment within a chromosome is missing.

Mutation

Missense mutation

Base substitution at a position in the DNA sequence can result in the incorporation of an incorrect amino acid into the corresponding protein.

New mutation

New mutation occurring after fertilization of the egg. Depending on the time of occurrence in development, a distinction is made between two main cases: In the case of very early occurrence, almost all cells of the developing individual are affected, possibly also the cells of the germ line; full clinical manifestation usually occurs. At later onset, only the cells of certain tissues are affected, this is called a somatic mutation with a mosaic for certain tissues. Clinically, all variations from severe to unaffected are possible.

Nonsense mutation

In protein biosynthesis (expression; production of a protein in a living organism), termination occurs through so-called stop codons (three-part base combination), which are recognized as such by the protein synthesis apparatus. If a stop codon is newly generated by a mutation in the coding region of a gene, premature termination of protein synthesis occurs. The result is a truncated, possibly functionless protein.

Point mutation

Change at one point in the DNA sequence, e.g. exchange of a nucleotide (DNA building block). This term also includes changes caused by deletion or insertion (incorporation) of single or multiple base pairs.

Splice-site mutation

The coding exon sequences of a gene must be assembled at the RNA level, i.e. the intron sequences must be removed. This process is called “splicing.” The splicing apparatus recognizes the beginning and the end of an exon, the so-called exon-intron boundary, by the base sequence in this region. If an essential base of this recognition sequence is exchanged, the corresponding exon is not included in the splicing process, resulting in the synthesis of an altered protein.

Triplet repeat extension, dynamic mutation.

Successive identical nucleotide triplets occur in different regions in the human genome. The number of such nucleotide triplets (triplet repeats) at a gene locus is variable in the population as a whole, but is restricted to a certain normal range and shows only minor changes within a family over generations. By a mechanism not yet known, the number of triplet repeats can increase beyond a critical threshold. If this excessive number of nucleotide triplet repeats (triplet repeat elongation) is present in the region of genes, it can cause disease. The effects of the increased number of triplet repeats vary, usually causing decreased synthesis or dysfunction of the corresponding protein. A special feature of this mutation mechanism is its dynamic nature: once the number of triplet repeats has exceeded the critical value, it can increase from generation to generation (dynamic mutation). Since the degree of expression and the age of manifestation of the diseases are related to the number of triplet repeats, the phenomenon of genetic anticipation (see above) can be explained in this way.

Nucleotide

Basic building block of DNA and RNA. It is a molecule with one phosphate, one sugar and one base component.

Nucleotide triplet

Sequence of three nucleotides (e.g. CAG).

PCR, polymerase chain reaction

Method for the in vitro amplification (multiplication of DNA segments) of a specific DNA sequence with the aid of DNA polymerases (enzyme for the synthesis of DNA). Amplification is achieved by cyclically repeated addition of single-stranded, synthetically produced DNA fragments (primers) to denatured (single-stranded) genomic DNA and extension of these fragments by a DNA polymerase. The DNA sequences to which the primers attach must be known.

Penetrance

Frequency in percent with which a gene or a mutation in a gene manifests itself in the phenotype.

Polymorphism

Occurrence of two or more different genotypes in a population. The different genotypes can be attributed to DNA sequence variations that are found to a certain percentage in the population and have no pathogenetic correlate.

Promoter

A DNA region approximately 100 bp long in eukaryotic genes (cells with nuclei) upstream of the transcription start of a gene, from which the transcription of the gene is controlled. Recognition sequences for the transcription enzyme complex and for regulatory proteins are located in this region.

Replication

Before each cell division, the chromosome set must be duplicated to ensure that all genetic material is passed on to the daughter cells. This is done by DNA replication, in which specific enzymes lead to identical duplication of DNA molecules in the cell.

Restriction enzymes

DNA endonucleases that bind to DNA at specific nucleotide sequences and cut the DNA strand at this point.

Recessive

Recessive means “receding.” Hereditary factors in “heterozygous” alleles are recessive if they do not appear in the expression of a trait compared to a dominant hereditary factor. For the recessive factor to prevail, it must be “homozygous”, i.e. it must be inherited from both parents. The hereditary factor must therefore be present in duplicate.

Sequence analysis, sequencing

Automated procedure for analyzing the nucleotide sequence of DNA fragments.

Sequence gel electrophoresis

Special form of gel electrophoresis for analyzing the nucleotide sequence of DNA fragments. Here, very short, single-stranded DNA fragments (denatured DNA strands) are separated and detected in a polyacrylamide gel, according to their length and nucleotide sequence.

Somatic mutation

If a mutation occurs after fertilization of an egg, not all tissues of the developing individual are usually affected by this mutation. By definition, germline cells are not affected by the mutation.

Southern blot hybridization

A technique to detect specific DNA fragments and analyze their size. For this purpose, genomic DNA is usually cleaved into fragments with restriction enzymes, which are separated by size using gel electrophoresis and then transferred to a membrane (Southern blot). This membrane is then incubated with a specific, radiolabeled DNA probe. If the complementary DNA sequence is present on the membrane, the probe attaches to this sequence (hybridization) and can subsequently be detected by autoradiography.

SSCP-analysis, single-stranded conformation polymorphism-analysis

Single-stranded conformation polymorphism-analysis: screening method for mutations based on the different electrophoretic running behavior of single-stranded DNAs with minimally different nucleotide sequences. For this analysis, the affected DNA region (usually single exons of genes mutated in specific diseases) is first amplified by PCR. After amplification, the double-stranded PCR products are denatured to obtain single strands, which are then analyzed for their running behavior in a gel electrophoresis. A difference of a single nucleotide leads to an altered conformation of the single strand and to an altered running behavior in the gel.

Transcription

First step in the expression of genes. In this process, a messenger RNA copy of an information-bearing DNA segment (gene) is synthesized in the cell nucleus by an RNA polymerase enzyme complex. Translation then takes place in the cytosol of the cell.

Translation

Second step in the expression of genes. Here, the information transferred to messenger RNA during transcription is read at the ribosomal protein synthesis apparatus and translated into the corresponding amino acid sequence.

Translocation

Chromosomal structural change caused by rearrangement of a chromosomal segment, e.g., loss, replacement, or relocation of individual chromosomal pieces.

Trinucleotide repeat, triplet repeat

Multiple consecutive repeats of a DNA sequence consisting of three nucleotides each (e.g. CAG).

Carrier

See Inheritance.

X inactivation

Inactivation of one of the two X chromosomes in somatic cells of female organisms occurring in the early embryonic period (Lyon hypothesis). Originally paternal or maternal X chromosomes are inactivated at random (random X-inactivation). The oil spill off the southern coast of the USA is apparently getting out of control. Media reports that the oil has already washed ashore have not yet been confirmed by the US Coast Guard. As soon as the first daylight is there, a control flight should bring the necessary information, said Eric Swanson of the Coast Guard. On the coast of the U.S. state of Louisiana, emergency forces continued to prepare for the arrival of the huge oil spill. A large number of oil barriers have been laid out to protect the coasts. Meanwhile, British oil company BP has taken “full responsibility” for the oil spill off the U.S. coast. A BP spokeswoman told the AFP news agency in New York on Friday that the group would take care of the cleanup of the oil spill. In addition, the group will pay for “legitimate claims” for damages. In parallel, America’s public learned Thursday that five times as much crude oil was gushing into the Gulf of Mexico from the well under the crashed production platform as previously thought. The U.S. government on Thursday classified the oil spill as a disaster “of national significance.” It is also considering calling in the U.S. military to help: The government in Washington offered equipment and personnel. U.S. President Barack Obama plans to send Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chief Lisa Jackson to the crisis region on Friday to gather information and put pressure on the oil company. According to new estimates, not 160,000 but 800,000 liters of oil are pouring into the sea every day. US media have switched to stating the volume in barrels. Accordingly, it is 5,000 barrels per day instead of the previously assumed 1,000 barrels. The dangerous silt is forecast to reach the southeastern tip of the state of Louisiana first. There, the Mississippi River widens into a delta about 30 kilometers wide. The potential damage to the unique ecosystem is difficult to gauge. The Coast Guard has begun deploying floating barriers to prevent the oil from entering the river channels, marshes and wetlands, where it threatens wildlife and plant life, as well as the vast oyster beds. Barriers have already been deployed along 30 kilometers, with another 50 kilometers to follow by Friday evening. In addition to two known leaks, a third has now been discovered Attempts to stop parts of the spill at a great distance from land and reduce their damage potential have been partially successful. The Coast Guard succeeded in separating smaller amounts of the oil floating on the sea surface from the large spill and burning it in a controlled manner at a safe distance. This is a complex process because, according to experts, the crude oil only burns on the water when it is concentrated into a layer at least one-third of an inch high and with hardly any water mixed in. As soon as the wave height exceeds one meter, currents are involved or the wind blows stronger than 20 knots, the chances of success for this flaring decrease. Mary Landry, the Coast Guard admiral who has become a national media star in the wake of the disaster, said burning was “just one of several approaches.” Describing the overall situation, she said, “It would be premature to call it a disaster. But the situation is very serious.” Information about the amount of oil leaking had been revised late Wednesday night after a third leak was discovered in the original production system. Before the spill, the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon platform had been pumping a million liters of oil a day from 1.7 kilometers below the Gulf of Mexico, 70 kilometers from shore. On April 20, a severe explosion occurred, the rig caught fire and sank two days later. 115 workers were rescued, eleven are presumed dead. When the rig sank, it took down the “trunk,” the 1.7-kilometer-long system of pipes that carried oil from the well to the rig. It lay “like a twisting and partly kinked garden hose” down in the ocean, experts say. In addition to two known leaks, a third has now been discovered. Actually, a 450-ton emergency valve is supposed to automatically shut off the well in case of unexpected pressure increase or accidents. It apparently did not work. Presumably, that was the cause of the explosion. (with dpa) To home page Bp Full Meaning.




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