Open Ended Sentences
AA Andreas Arndt, Berlin AB Andreas Bartels, Paderborn AC Andreas Cremonini, Basel AD Andreas Disselnkötter, Dortmund AE Achim Engstler, Münster AG Alexander Grau, Berlin AK André Kieserling, Bielefeld AM Arne Malmsheimer, Bochum AN Armin Nassehi, Munich AR Alexander Riebel, Würzburg ARE Anne Reichold, Kaiserslautern AS Annette Sell, Bochum AT Axel Tschentscher, Würzburg ATA Angela T. Augustin † AW Astrid Wagner, Berlin BA Bernd Amos, Erlangen BBR Birger Brinkmeier, Münster BCP Bernadette Collenberg-Plotnikov, Hagen BD Bernhard Debatin, Berlin BES Bettina Schmitz, Würzburg BG Bernward Gesang, Kusterdingen BI Bernhard Irrgang, Dresden BK Bernd Kleimann, Tübingen BKO Boris Kositzke, Tübingen BL Burkhard Liebsch, Bochum BR Boris Rähme, Berlin BS Berthold Suchan, Gießen BZ Bernhard Zimmermann, Freiburg CA Claudia Albert, Berlin CH Cornelia Haas, Würzburg CHA Christoph Asmuth, Berlin CHR Christa Runtenberg, Münster CI Christian Iber, Berlin CJ Christoph Jäger, Leipzig CK Christian Kanzian, Innsbruck CL Cornelia Liesenfeld, Augsburg CLK Clemens Kauffmann, Lappersdorf CM Claudius Müller, Nehren CO Clemens Ottmers, Tübingen CP Cristina de la Puente, Stuttgart CS Christian Schröer, Augsburg CSE Clemens Sedmak, Innsbruck CT Christian Tewes, Jena CZ Christian Zeuch, Münster DG Dorothea Günther, Würzburg DGR Dorit Grugel, Münster DH Detlef Horster, Hannover DHB Daniela Hoff-Bergmann, Bremen DIK Dietmar Köveker, Frankfurt a. M. DK Dominic Kaegi, Lucerne DKÖ Dietmar Köhler, Witten DL Dorothea Lüddeckens, Zurich DP Dominik Perler, Berlin DR Dane Ratliff, Würzburg and Austin/Texas EE Eva Elm, Berlin EJ Eva Jelden, Berlin EF Elisabeth Fink, Berlin EM Ekkehard Martens, Hamburg ER Eberhard Rüddenklau, Staufenberg EWG Eckard Wolz-Gottwald, Davensberg EWL Elisabeth Weisser-Lohmann, Bochum FBS Franz-Bernhard Stammkötter, Bochum FG Frank Grunert, Basel FPB Franz-Peter Burkard, Würzburg FW Fabian Wittreck, Münster GK Georg Kneer, Leipzig GKB Gudrun Kühne-Bertram, Ochtrup GL Georg Lohmann, Magdeburg GM Georg Mildenberger, Tübingen GME Günther Mensching, Hannover GMO Georg Mohr, Bremen GN Guido Naschert, Tübingen GOS Gottfried Schwitzgebel, Mainz GS Georg Scherer, Oberhausen GSO Gianfranco Soldati, Tübingen HB Harald Berger, Graz HD Horst Dreier, Würzburg HDH Han-Ding Hong, Düsseldorf HG Helmut Glück, Bamberg HGR Horst Gronke, Berlin HL Hilge Landweer, Berlin HND Herta Nagl-Docekal, Vienna HPS Helke Pankin-Schappert, Mainz HS Herbert Schnädelbach, Berlin IR Ines Riemer, Hamburg JA Johann S. Ach, Münster JC Jürgen Court, Cologne JH Jörg Hardy, Münster JHI Jens Hinkmann, Bad Tölz JK Jörg Klawitter, Würzburg JM Jörg F. Maas, Hannover JOP Jeff Owen Prudhomme, Macon/Georgia JP Jörg Pannier, Münster JPB Jens Peter Brune JQ Josef Quitterer, Innsbruck JR Josef Rauscher, Mainz JRO Johannes Rohbeck, Dresden JS Joachim Söder, Bonn JSC Jörg Schmidt, Munich JV Jürgen Villers, Aachen KDZ Klaus-Dieter Zacher, Berlin KE Klaus Eck, Würzburg KG Kerstin Gevatter, Bochum KH Kai-Uwe Hellmann, Berlin KHG Karl-Heinz Gerschmann, Münster KHL Karl-Heinz Lembeck, Würzburg KJG Klaus-Jürgen Grün, Frankfurt a. M. KK Klaus Kahnert, Bochum KRL Karl-Reinhard Lohmann, Witten KS Kathrin Schulz, Würzburg KSH Klaus Sachs-Hombach, Magdeburg LG Lutz Geldsetzer, Düsseldorf LR Leonhard Richter, Würzburg MA Mauro Antonelli, Graz MB Martin Beisler, Gerbrunn MBI Marcus Birke, Münster MBO Marco Bonato, Tübingen MD Max Deeg, Cardiff MDB Matthias Bloch, Bochum ME Michael Esfeld, Münster MFM Martin F. Meyer, Koblenz/Landau MK Matthias Kunz, Munich MKL Martin Kleinsorge, Aachen MKO Mathias Koßler, Mainz ML Mark Lekarew, Berlin MLE Michael Leibold, Würzburg MM Matthias Maring, Karlsruhe MN Marcel Niquet, Frankfurt a.M. MQ Michael Quante, Cologne MR Mathias Richter, Berlin MRM Marie-Luise Raters-Mohr, Potsdam MS Manfred Stöckler, Bremen MSI Mark Siebel, Hamburg MSP Michael Spang, Ellwangen MSU Martin Suhr, Hamburg MW Markus Willaschek, Münster MWÖ Matthias Wörther, Munich NM Norbert Meuter, Berlin OB Oliver Baum, Bochum OFS Orrin F. Summerell, Bochum PE Peter Eisenhardt, Frankfurt a.M. PCL Peter Ch. Lang, Frankfurt a. M. PK Peter Kunzmann, Jena PN Peter Nitschke, Vechta PP Peter Prechtl † RD Ruth Dommaschk, Würzburg RDÜ Renate Dürr, Karlsruhe RE Rolf Elberfeld, Hildesheim REW Ruth Ewertowski, Stuttgart RH Reiner Hedrich, Giessen RHI Reinhard Hiltscher, Stegaurach RK Reinhard Kottmann, Münster RL Rudolf Lüthe, Koblenz RLA Rolf-Jürgen Lachmann, Berlin RM Reinhard Mehring, Berlin RP Roland Popp, Bremen RS Regina Srowig, Würzburg RTH Robert Theis, Strassen RW Raymund Weyers, Cologne SD Steffen Dietzsch, Berlin SIK Simone Koch, Bochum SP Stephan Pohl, Dresden SZ Snjezana Zoric, Würzburg TB Thomas Bausch, Berlin TBL Thomas Blume, Dresden TF Thomas Friedrich, Mannheim TG Thomas Grundmann, Cologne TH Thomas Hammer, Frankfurt a. M. TK Thomas Kisser, Munich TM Thomas Mormann, Unterhaching TN Thomas Noetzel, Marburg TP Tony Pacyna, Jena TW Thomas Welt, Bochum UB Ulrich Baltzer, Munich UT Udo Tietz, Berlin UM Ulrich Metschl, Munich/Leonberg VG Volker Gerhardt, Berlin VM Verena Mayer, Munich VP Veit Pittioni, Innsbruck VR Virginie Riant, Vechta WAM Walter Mesch, Heidelberg WB Wilhelm Baumgartner, Würzburg WH Wolfram Hinzen, Bern WJ Werner Jung, Duisburg WK Wulf Kellerwessel, Aachen WL Winfried Löffler, Innsbruck WM Wolfgang Meckel, Butzbach WN Wolfgang Neuser, Kaiserslautern WP Wolfgang Pleger, Cochem/Dohr WS Werner Schüßler, Trier WST Wolfgang Struck, Erfurt WSU Wolfgang Schulz, Tübingen WvH Wolfram von Heynitz, Weiburg Edited by Peter Prechtl (†) and Franz-Peter Burkard.
What are open questions?
Open questions do not provide a fixed answer format and are formulated as neutrally as possible. They offer the respondents space and no answer options are implied or suggested. In surveys, open-ended questions are characterized by a free text field in which participants can enter their answer. An example – open-ended question: Example: What can we do to improve the online buying process? Open-ended questions are designed to collect qualitative data. This contrasts with closed questions, which tend to generate data that can be analyzed statistically.
Open questions – advantages and disadvantages
Open questions offer respondents the opportunity to answer at length. Due to the lack of guidelines, the answer may not turn out as desired: Example: Please describe the work climate in your department. Response: Quite okay. There is no one right question type – only the one that fits the recipient group, the topic and the intention.
|Designing a questionnaire is easier because there are no answer choices to define.||Respondents usually have to invest significantly more time if they are willing to answer the questions in detail.|
|Respondents cannot be influenced by predetermined answers and answer patterns.||Due to the flexibility of answering, there can be both very short and extremely long answers, which are less helpful.|
|The quality of the answers can be significantly higher if the questions are asked sensibly, recorded correctly and answered in a well-founded manner.||The evaluation of the answers is much more complicated, since the data obtained must be filtered manually from the full texts.|
|The free text field also gives respondents the opportunity to give hints about the question, so that a questionnaire can be optimized.||The cognitive abilities of the respondents can strongly influence the quality of the answers.|
Open questions – examples
Open questions are also called W-questions because they often start with the classic question words:
- What for?
Often the wording or sentence structure determines whether a question is more open or closed. Negative-example: Can you think of any other measures? The approach of the question is open and a detailed answer would be conceivable. However, the question is awkward because a simple answer such as “yes” or “no” is implied. By using a question word, the question becomes clearly open-ended: Example: What other measures can you think of? In a questionnaire, open questions can be placed in combination with closed ones:
- A free text field complementary to the answer specifications of a closed question:
Example: Where do you see yourself 5 years after graduation? Answers: Employed, Senior, Management, Other (single free text field).
- In addition to closed questions within a topic block:
Example: What other measures can you think of to improve working conditions?
Comparison of open and closed questions
The counterpart to open questions are closed questions. Different objectives can be achieved with each of the two types.
Quantitative data: closed questions
Closed questions are formulated very precisely and thus delimit the answer format. In conversations and interviews, the answers are brief – usually only “yes” or “no.” In a questionnaire, answer options are placed directly below the question. These options can be given, for example, in the form of a multiple-choice pattern or a scale. An example – closed question: Example: On a scale of 1-10: How satisfied are you with your working hours?
When to use open and when to use closed questions?
Open-ended questions present more challenges to respondents: Survey participants need to understand and contextualize the questions. In addition, response quality may depend more on the respondent’s current state and time. Closed-ended questions are less time-consuming, but carry the risk of random or ill-considered answers. Reasons for open-ended questions:
- The topic is still undefined from the questioner’s point of view.
- The aim is to gain information.
- The spectrum of possible answers is very wide.
Reasons for closed questions:
- The topic is already largely clear.
- It is about collecting precise attitudes.
- The spectrum of possible answers is limited.
Open and closed questions – differences
The differences between open and closed questions are relevant for both questioners and respondents:
|Open questions||Easier due to lack of specifications||Full text complicates data analysis||Can be very high<||Not applicable due to lack of specifications|
|Closed questions||Preparation is labor intensive||Data is easily quantifiable||Risk of getting arbitrary answers||Specifications can easily influence|
- Customer acquisition
- Professional articles
CommunicationPosing the right questions in sales talks
How do you make the best use of questioning techniques in sales? What role do open-ended questions play? And what effect do confirmation questions have on customers? The author explains how questions can help to close deals. With examples. Many salespeople talk too much and let customers have little say. But a good salesperson asks the customer questions at all stages of the sales conversation. If you know the different types of questions and use them correctly during the sales talk, you can lead potential customers quickly and confidently to a purchase decision.
Obtaining information with open questions
When you meet a customer for the first time, you usually still know little about them. Therefore, you must first find out who your counterpart is and what is important to them when making a purchase decision. You can get this information by asking open-ended questions. The customer cannot simply answer yes or no to open-ended questions. Open questions also include the so-called W-questions: who, what, why, when, …? For example, “What do you expect from your new car?” With such questions, you draw the customer’s attention to the goals he or she is pursuing with the purchase. Most of the time, customers then give answers like, “I want the car to be a family vehicle that you can also take on vacation.” Good salespeople are never satisfied with such general statements, because they don’t provide them with the detailed information they need for the sales pitch. So you should ask more open-ended information questions. For example, “How many people are going on vacation in the car and what are you taking with you besides luggage?” You need this additional detailed info not only to select the right product, but also to present it to the customer in a way that makes them want to buy it.
Examples of open-ended questions
Target: Use open-ended questions to gather information from the customer. Examples:
- “What do you expect from a good …?”
- “What do you mean?”
- At least one sentence as a customer response
- Gaining information
- Provide clarity
- Clarify concerns
Ask confirmation questions
Before you suggest two or three products for the customer to choose from, you should make sure that you have really understood what is important to him. You can do this by summarizing the conversation so far again in your own words and saying, for example, “If I have understood you correctly, you want a car that …” After that, you should ask, “Is this true?” So after the summary, you ask a closed-ended confirmation question that the customer can answer yes or no to. If they do it this way, you avoid misunderstandings. When the customer signals his or her intention to buy, you can start presenting the products. However, this should be designed as a dialog. So communicate with the customer. For example, ask: “Does this model with seven seats, two of which can be removed, meet your expectations?” Or, “Does this paint job appeal to you?”
Bring about partial decisions and ask follow-up questions.
During the product presentation, keep asking open-ended information questions that begin with the words “how good?” or “how much?” for example. Or ask a confirmation question that requires the customer to make a partial decision. For example: “Does this vehicle interior, the …, meet your expectations?” If the customer says no to a confirmation question, you should respond immediately by asking, “What exactly doesn’t meet your expectations?” Then the customer provides the necessary information so that you can adjust the product selection or sales pitch. Such an approach has several advantages:
- You are in permanent dialog with the customer, so he or she feels taken seriously.
- You regularly check whether you are still on track to close the sale.
- You encourage the customer to make many partial decisions in the course of the conversation.
Accordingly, it is easy for the customer to decide to buy the product at the end, since the decision is a logical consequence of the partial decisions made during the conversation.
Examples of closed questions
Target: With closed questions, on the one hand you ensure that you have understood the customer correctly. On the other hand, the question also requires the customer to make a partial decision. Examples:
- “Do you see it the same way?”
- “Is this what you imagined?”
- “Do you like the product?”
- Yes or no as a customer response
- Customer’s agreement or disagreement
- Leads to partial decision
- Avoids objections
Questions in the closing phase
Once the customer has made the relevant partial decisions, you can secure the deal. You should also introduce this phase of the conversation with a question. But now it’s no longer a question of whether the customer will buy, but of the modalities of the purchase. Therefore, in the closing phase, do not ask any more questions that create renewed uncertainty in the customer. This is the case, for example, with all questions formulated in the subjunctive. For example: “Would this meet your expectations?” Or, “Would you be satisfied with this car?” Such questions cause the customer to reconsider his partial decisions. Instead, in the closing phase, tacitly assume the customer’s yes to the purchase and ask, for example, “By when should the discussed changes to the car’s equipment be carried out?” Salespeople often also ask alternative questions at this stage of the conversation, which presuppose the customer’s decision to buy. For example, “Should I specify gray or green as the color in the purchase contract for the vehicle?” Or, “Would you like to pay cash or take advantage of our favorable financing offer?” You can act so offensively when the customer has made all the relevant partial decisions. After all, he also wants to reach a conclusion at this point. Accordingly, it is important that you master the questions for the sales pitch. This not only increases the probability of a deal, but also saves time. Time that you can use, for example, for closing more deals.
Examples of alternative questions
Target: The customer’s purchase decision is implicitly assumed. Alternative questions draw attention to aspects that are relevant after the purchase decision has been made. Formulations:
- “Would you prefer … or …?”
- “Does it suit you better on … or on …?”
- Customer response moves within a predefined corridor
- Speeds up the decision or leads to it
- Gives the customer the feeling that he is deciding
- Suitable for arranging a customer appointment
- Bringing about the conclusion of the deal
Free download Media and their journalistic power are popularly called the 4th power of the state. Whether this equation is justified is… Download Now Created: You can use any question type as an open-ended or closed-ended question – and the results are highly variable! Read more about it here.
Use questioning techniques correctly – open and closed questions.
You can use any question type as an open or also as a closed question – and the results are highly different! Depending on whether you ask an open or closed question, you influence the quality and length of the answers. An example in which first an open question and then a closed question is asked:
- “Mr. Schnack, what do you think about the proposal?”
- “Well, I’m of the opinion … and in the many years that I’ve … Therefore, I am convinced … Just yesterday I met … And this is important to me …”
- “Mr. Schnack, please allow me to interject here for a moment. Please answer me one more question: do you agree with the proposal?”
- “Thank you very much, Mr. Schnack. Now let’s move on to the next voting item …”
Open-ended questions get your conversation partner talking
The open question begins with a question word:
- from where
- by what
- with what
This gives your interviewer the opportunity to answer comprehensively and in complete sentences.
Examples of open-ended questions:
- Question: “What can I help you with?”
- Answer: “I am interested in … and … and …”
- Question: “How did you solve the problem?”
- Response: “First I … then … and now …”
- Question: “How far are you from the goal?”
- Response: “We still have to … and then …”
- Question: “What do you like about this article?”
- Response: “I like that he … And …”
Use the open-ended question to initiate an in-depth conversation. Use it to open up reluctant or uncertain interlocutors and to get additional information. But beware: So that you don’t lose the lead in the conversation, you should avoid this form of question with talkative interlocutors!
The closed question brings you decisions and concise answers
The closed question begins with a verb or auxiliary verb. With this form of question, you get your interlocutor to answer in a few words, usually just yes or no.
Examples of closed questions:
- Question: “Can I help you?”
- Response: “No, thank you.”
- Question: “Did you solve the problem?”
- Response: “Yes.”
- Question: “Did you achieve your goal?”
- Response: “No, not yet.”
- Question: “Do you like this article?”
- Response: “Yes.”
Closed questions help you keep the conversation tight and get to a decision quickly. They force frequent talkers to be brief and get to the point quickly. But beware: Shy interlocutors, however, quickly feel pressured by this form of questioning and will probably withdraw even further from the conversation! Entrepreneurial knowledge An idea alone does not make a successful entrepreneur. To be successful in the long term, especially today, you need more: more knowledge, more flexibility, more perseverance, more information. Entrepreneur-Knowledge! | Susanne Khammar – As an entrepreneur you are in constant exchange with other people: These can be customers, but also colleagues or suppliers. Whoever has problems here… Read article – When we communicate, we exchange signals, verbal – meaning words – and non-verbal – meaning body language. Recent research by… Read article – The visual appearance of your company is not determined by the graphic designer or the advertising agency that designs it.The appearance must be created by… Read Article | dgx – A typical phenomenon: There are employees who have every little thing approved by you as the marketing manager, instead of once themselves… Read article – A company’s image can play a decisive role in its success or failure. The bad reputation of a company can even have a negative impact on… Read article Open Ended Sentences.
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