Nature Of Biopsychology
Biocybernetics is a border area between biology and cybernetics. Cybernetics is the science of control processes. control and regulation processes. Such processes play an important role in organisms and ecosystems, e.g. in the maintenance of body homeostasis (body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar level, electrolyte content of body fluids) but also in movement processes, in developmental processes or in gene regulation. The term cybernetics was introduced in 1948 by the mathematician NORBERT WIENER with his work “Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine”. With it he characterized a field of knowledge and research in the areas of control, regulation and information processing, which is just as relevant for technical systems as for living systems. The central variable in cybernetics is information, which is why the term computer science has partially replaced cybernetics. Living things are information-processing systems.
It is the science of the distribution and dispersal of living things on Earth. Traditionally, biogeography is usually divided into the separate fields of animal geography (zoogeography) and plant geography (phytogeography). Overarching tasks are the description and recording of the Earth’s species population (faunistics, floristics) and the description of their habitats (range science).
Whenever biological knowledge is made the basis of political views, activities or decisions, this can be called biopolitics. In this sense, nature conservation and environmental protection laws, political activities to prevent epidemics, or political guidelines that serve the production of poison-free food are biopolitical measures in the broadest sense. The term “biopolitics,” however, goes back to the philosopher MICHEL FOUCAULT (1926-1984), who used it to describe a tendency of the modern state to increasingly control the human body. Thus, for example, state teachings on healthy behavior are to be seen, including AIDS prevention. At the same time, there are also very dangerous aspects of biopolitics: e.g., political attempts and initiatives aimed at “improving” hereditary characteristics (eugenics) or at increasing the number of the more intelligent segment of the population to the detriment of the less intelligent. The consequences that such approaches can ultimately have are shown by the genocides of the 20th century, especially extreme the systematic extermination of the Jews by the National Socialists.
Sociobiology and Biosociology
Sociobiology is a branch of biology that combines evolutionary biology and ethology and, on this basis, seeks scientific explanations for social behaviors in animals and humans. The term was coined in 1975 by EDWARD OSBORNE WILSON (*1929) in his work. “Sociobiology – The New Synthesis” coined. WILSON assumed a strong biological influence on social behavior also in humans. According to this, social behavior can be explained evolutionary-biologically by selection mechanisms. This assumption provoked great resistance in the humanities and social sciences. Also the concept of the “meme”, introduced in this context by RICHARD DAWKINS (*1941), was rejected. meme as a unit of cultural evolution analogous to the gene, is hardly discussed seriously by social scientists. However, many sociologists – similar to DAWKINS – assume that human social behavior cannot be explained by biological advantages alone, but that there is an evolution of culture and thus of social behavior largely independent of genes and genetic dispositions. Sociological research that deals with human behavior from this perspective is often referred to as Biosociology referred to as biosociology. The project will cover three outpatient care facilities and selected departments in three hospitals in the Berlin area. A prevention program tailored to the needs of the institution will be implemented in the facilities, integrating setting-oriented occupational health management (OHM) and related measures of workplace health promotion (WHP). These measures primarily cover the fields of action of exercise, nutrition and relaxation, but are also tailored to the specifics and needs of the respective institution and may require the implementation of other key topics (e.g. work organization, dealing with shift work). For the individual facilities, the following aspects are implemented according to the BASE concept (Wollesen et al., 2008, 2012, 2016): – Preparation of an expert analysis to describe successful BGM measures and projects in hospitals and in outpatient care, – Identification of setting-specific needs for action (hospital vs. outpatient care), – Promotion of health potentials of employees in hospitals and outpatient care services by means of interventions adapted to needs, – Implementation of the setting approach through the targeted recording of the respective institutional preconditions, needs and hurdles in the facilities (by means of surveys, participant observations, interviews, focus groups); at the same time, network partners are sought in the setting for sustainable implementation, – Focusing the nursing staff by linking up with existing structures of the BGM, – Participation of all stakeholders in the health promotion process (personnel management, occupational health and safety, health circles, etc.) as a core building block for the success of the BASE concept, – Promotion of mobility/expansion of resources through adapted and digitized intervention measures. The corresponding measures in the facilities will be systematically evaluated (structure, process, result) in order to derive concrete planning and action aids that will be transferred into later training documents or handouts. The nursing facilities involved are described on the basis of their basic requirements (type of hospital, number of beds, staffing ratio, neighborhood, etc.) in order to analyze the applicability of the concept under a wide variety of conditions and thus cover a broad spectrum of practice. The overall process for the facilities is as follows: – Needs analysis according to the BASE concept (orientation to structural company conditions – including recording of workloads; consideration of the organizational and social environment, such as working hours, break arrangements; involvement of employees – including through surveys on wishes for health promotion) – Derivation of recommendations for action for BGM/BGF for the respective setting – Integration of the respective institutional prerequisites into the concept and connection to existing structures (e.g. to existing measures within the framework of BGM in hospitals) – Clarification of cooperation possibilities in the course of the health promotion process (e.g. with accident insurance funds and pension insurance providers) – Joint definition of a plan of action – Development of suitable prevention measures for the outpatient setting and the hospital setting – Implementation of intensive, workplace-oriented measures (according to criteria § 20 SGB V), anchoring in the corporate culture – Review of the intervention successes – Creation of a sustainability concept and review of this – Transfer of the results into a brochure/handout and associated publications. Editorial office Rolf Sauermost (Project Manager) Doris Freudig (Editor) Extended editorial team Dr. Michael Bonk (assistant) Dr. Andreas Sendtko (assistant) Dr. Helmut Genaust (etymological editing) Dr. Claudia Gack (picture board editing) Graphics: Hermann Bausch Dr. Michael Bonk (EDP) Wolfgang Hanns Laura C. Hartmann (EDP) Professor Dr. Rüdiger Hartmann (EDP) Klaus Hemmann Manfred Himmler Rudolf Kempf (EDP) Martin Lay (EDP) Rolf Sauermost (EDP) Dr. Richard Schmid Hanns Strub Melanie Waigand-Brauner (EDP) CD-ROM output: Doris Freudig (editing and conception) Richard Zinken (consulting) Consultants Prof. Dr. Arno Bogenrieder (Botany) Prof. Dr. Klaus-Günter Collatz (Zoology) Prof. Dr. Hans Kössel (†) (Biochemistry, Molecular Biology) Prof. Dr. Uwe Maier (Biochemistry, Molecular Biology) Prof. Dr. Günther Osche (Zoology) Prof. Dr. Georg Schön (Microbiology) Authors [abc] [def] [ghi] [jkl] [mno] [pqr] [stuv] [wxyz] Anhäuser, Marcus (M.A.) Arnheim, Dr. Katharina (K.A.) Becker-Follmann, Dr. Johannes (J.B.-F.) Bensel, Dr. Joachim (J.Be.) Bergfeld (†), Dr. Rainer (R.B.) Berthold, Prof. Dr. Peter (P.B.) Bogenrieder, Prof. Dr. Arno (A.B.) Bohrmann, PD Dr. Johannes (J.B.) Bonk, Dr. Michael (M.B.) Born, Prof. Dr. Jan (J.Bo.) Braun, Andreas (A.Br.) Bürger, Prof. Dr. Renate (R.Bü.) Cassada, Dr. Randall (R.C.) Collatz, Prof. Dr. Klaus-Günter (K.- G.C.) Culmsee, Dr. Carsten (C.C.) Drews, Dr. Martina (M.D.) Drossé, Inke (I.D.) Duell-Pfaff, Dr. Nixe (N.D.) Duffner, Dr. Klaus (K.D.) Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Prof. Dr. Irenäus (I.E.) Eisenhaber, Dr. Frank (F.E.) Emschermann, Dr. Peter (P.E.) Engelbrecht, Beate (B.E.) Engeser, PD Dr. Theo (T.E.) Eurich, Dr. Christian (C.E.) Ewig, Bettina (B.Ew.) Fässler, Dr. Peter (P.F.) Fehrenbach, Dr. Heinz (H.F. ) Fix, Dr. Michael (M.F.) Flemming, Alexandra (A.F.) Franzen, Dr. Jens Lorenz (J.F.) Freudig, Doris (D.F.) Gack, Dr. Claudia (C.G.) Gallenmüller, Dr. Friederike (F.G.) Ganter, Sabine (S.G. ) Gärtig, Susanne (S.Gä.) Gärtner, PD Dr. Wolfgang (W.G.) Gassen, Prof. Dr. Hans-Günter Geinitz, Christian (Ch.G.) Genth, Dr. Harald (H.G.) Gläser, Dr. Birgitta (B.G.) Götting, Prof. Dr. Klaus-Jürgen (K.- J.G.) Grasser, Dr. habil. Klaus (K.G.) Grieß, Dr. Eike (E.G.) Grüttner, Dr. Astrid (A.G.) Häbe, Martina (M.Hä.) Haken, Prof. Dr. Hermann Hanser, Dr. Hartwig (H.Ha.) Harder, Deane Lee (D.Ha.) Hartmann, Prof. Dr. Rüdiger (R.H.) Hassenstein, Prof. Dr. Bernhard (B.H.) Haug-Schnabel, PD Dr. Gabriele (G.H.- S.) Hemminger, Dr. habil. Hansjörg (H.H.) Herbstritt, Dr. Lydia (L.H.) Hobom, Dr. Barbara (B.Ho.) Hoffrichter, Dr. Odwin (O.H.) Hohl, Dr. Michael (M.H.) Hoos, Katrin (K.H.) Horn, Dagmar (D.H.) Horn, Prof. Dr. Eberhard (E.H.) Huber, Christoph (Ch.H.) Huber, Dr. Gerhard (G.H.) Huber, Prof. Dr. Robert Hug, Dr. Agnes M. (A.H.) Illerhaus, Dr. Jürgen (J.I.) Illes, Prof. Dr. Peter (P.I.) Illing, Prof. Dr. Robert-Benjamin (R.B.I.) Irmer, Juliette (J.Ir.) Jaekel, Dr. Karsten Jäger, Dr. Rudolf Jahn, Dr. Ilse Jahn, Prof. Dr. Theo (T.J.) Jendritzky, Prof. Dr. Gerd (G.J.) Jendrsczok, Dr. Christine (Ch. J.) Jerecic, Renate (R.J.) Jordan, Dr. Elke (E.J.) Just, Dr. Lothar (L.J.) Just, Margit (M.J.) Kary, Michael (M.K.) Kaspar, Dr. Robert Kattmann, Prof. Dr. Ulrich (U.K.) Kindt, Silvan (S.Ki. ) Kirchner, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang (W.K.) Kirkilionis, Dr. Evelin (E.K.) Kislinger, Claudia (C.K.) Klein-Hollerbach, Dr. Richard (R.K.) Klonk, Dr. Sabine (S.Kl.) Kluge, Prof. Dr. Friedrich (F. K.) König, Dr. Susanne (S.Kö.) Körner, Dr. Helge (H.Kör.) Kössel (†), Prof. Dr. Hans (H.K.) Kühnle, Ralph (R.Kü.) Kuss (†), Prof. Dr. Siegfried (S.K.) Kyrieleis, Armin (A.K. ) Lahrtz, Stephanie (S.L.) Lamparski, Prof. Dr. Franz (F.L.) Landgraf, Dr. Uta (U.L.) Lange, Prof. Dr. Herbert (H.L.) Lange, Jörg Langer, Dr. Bernd (B.La.) Larbolette, Dr. Oliver (O.L. ) Laurien-Kehnen, Dr. Claudia (C.L.) Lay, Dr. Martin (M.L.) Lechner-Ssymank, Brigitte (B.Le.) Leinberger, Annette (A.L.) Leven, Prof. Franz-Josef (F.J.L.) Liedvogel, Prof. Dr. Bodo (B.L.) Littke, Dr. habil. Walter (W.L.) Loher, Prof. Dr. Werner (W.Lo.) Lützenkirchen, Dr. Günter (G.L.) Mack, Dr. Frank (F.M.) Mahner, Dr. Martin (M.Ma.) Maier, PD Dr. Rainer (R.M.) Maier, Prof. Dr. Uwe (U.M.) Marksitzer, Dr. René (R.Ma.) Markus, Prof. Dr. Mario (M.M.) Martin, Dr. Stefan (S.Ma.) Medicus, Dr. Gerhard (G.M.) Mehler, Ludwig (L.M.) Mehraein, Dr. Susan (S.Me.) Meier, Kirstin (K.M.) Meineke, Sigrid (S.M.) Mohr, Prof. Dr. Hans (H.M.) Mosbrugger, Prof. Dr. Volker (V.M.) Mühlhäusler, Andrea (A.M.) Müller, Dr. Ralph (R.Mü.) Müller, Ulrich (U.Mü.) Müller, Wolfgang Harry (W. H.M.) Murmann-Kristen, Dr. Luise (L.Mu.) Mutke, Jens (J.M.) Narberhaus, Ingo (I.N.) Neub, Dr. Martin (M.N.) Neumann, Dr. Harald (H.Ne. ) Neumann, Prof. Dr. Herbert (H.N.) Nick, PD Dr. Peter (P.N.) Nörenberg, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang (W.N.) Nübler-Jung, Prof. Dr. Katharina (K.N.) Oehler, Prof. Dr. Jochen (J.Oe.) Oelze, Prof. Dr. Jürgen (J.O.) Olenik, Dr. Claudia (C.O.) Osche, Prof. Dr. Günther (G.O.) Panesar, Arne Raj Panholzer, Bärbel (B. P.) Paul, PD Dr. Andreas (A.P.) Paulus, Prof. Dr. Hannes (H.P.) Pfaff, Dr. Winfried (W.P.) Pickenhain, Prof. Dr. Lothar (L.P.) Probst, Dr. Oliver (O. P.) Ramstetter, Dr. Elisabeth (E.R.) Ravati, Alexander (A.R.) Rehfeld, Dr. Klaus (K.Re.) Reiner, Dr. Susann Annette (S.R.) Riede, Dr. habil. Klaus (K.R.) Riegraf, Dr. Wolfgang (W.R.) Riemann, Prof. Dr. Dieter Roth, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Rübsamen-Waigmann, Prof. Dr. Helga Sachße (†), Dr. Hanns (H.S.) Sander, Prof. Dr. Klaus (K.S.) Sauer, Prof. Dr. Peter (P.S.) Sauermost, Elisabeth (E.Sa.) Sauermost, Rolf (R.S.) Schaller, Prof. Dr. Friedrich Schaub, Prof. Dr. Günter A. (G.Sb. ) Schickinger, Dr. Jürgen (J.S.) Schindler, Dr. Franz (F.S.) Schindler, Dr. Thomas (T.S.) Schley, Yvonne (Y.S.) Schling-Brodersen, Dr. Uschi Schmeller, Dr. Dirk (D.S. ) Schmitt, Prof. Dr. Michael (M.S.) Schmuck, Dr. Thomas (T.Schm.) Scholtyssek, Christine (Ch.S.) Schön, Prof. Dr. Georg (G.S.) Schönwiese, Prof. Dr. Christian-Dietrich (C.- D.S.) Schwarz, PD Dr. Elisabeth (E.S.) Seibt, Dr. Uta Sendtko, Dr. Andreas (A.Se.) Sitte, Prof. Dr. Peter Spatz, Prof. Dr. Hanns-Christof (H.- C.S.) Speck, Prof. Dr. Thomas (T.Sp.) Ssymank, Dr. Axel (A.S.) Starck, PD Dr. Matthias (M.St.) Steffny, Herbert (H.St.) Sternberg, Dr. Klaus (K.St.) Stöckli, Dr. Esther (E.St.) Streit, Prof. Dr. Bruno (B.St.) Strittmatter, PD Dr. Günter (G. St.) Stürzel, Dr. Frank (F.St.) Sudhaus, Prof. Dr. Walter (W.S.) Tewes, Prof. Dr. Uwe Theopold, Dr. Ulrich (U.T.) Uhl, Dr. Gabriele (G.U.) Unsicker, Prof. Dr. Klaus (K.U.) Vaas, Rüdiger (R.V.) Vogt, Prof. Dr. Joachim (J.V.) Vollmer, Prof. Dr. Dr. Gerhard (G.V.) Wagner, Prof. Dr. Edgar (E.W.) Wagner, Eva-Maria Wagner, Thomas (T.W.) Wandtner, Dr. Reinhard (R.Wa.) Warnke-Grüttner, Dr. Raimund (R.W.) Weber, Dr. Manfred (M.W.) Wegener, Dr. Dorothee (D.W.) Weth, Dr. Robert (R.We. ) Weyand, Anne (A.W.) 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|enlarge This picture is not an original photo of the offered copy. Deviations are possible.||Price: 22,00 € *Shipping costs: 8,00 € (Germany) used book|
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|Publisher’s Annotation:||This widely used standard work provides an easy-to-read and practical introduction to all relevant topics in biological psychology. The focus of the book is on the behavioral and integrative approach of biopsychology. The integration of the overarching topics of “Evolutionary Psychology,” “Clinical Psychology,” “Cognitive Neuroscience,” and “Foundations of Biopsychology” is made transparent to the reader through special emphasis on the topics in the text and chapter summaries. The theoretical foundations are underpinned and illustrated by numerous clinical case studies and examples from students’ experiences. As a result, the book is ideal for self-study in addition to lecture-based reading.|
|Keywords:||Memory, biology, brain, physiology, behavior.|
Books: Psychology / Education: General Psychology
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Cancellation Policy Right of withdrawal Return Policy You have the right to cancel this contract within fourteen days without giving any reason. The withdrawal period is fourteen days from the day (1). To exercise your right of withdrawal, you must inform us (2) by means of a clear statement (eg a letter sent by mail, fax or e-mail) of your decision to revoke this contract. For this purpose, you may use the enclosed sample revocation form, which, however, is not mandatory. (3) In order to comply with the revocation period, it is sufficient that you send the notification of the exercise of the right of revocation before the expiry of the revocation period. Consequences of revocation If you revoke this contract, we shall reimburse you all payments we have received from you, including delivery costs (with the exception of additional costs resulting from the fact that you have chosen a type of delivery other than the most favorable standard delivery offered by us), without undue delay and no later than within fourteen days from the day on which we received the notification of your revocation of this contract. For this repayment, we will use the same means of payment that you used for the original transaction, unless expressly agreed otherwise with you; in no case will you be charged for this repayment. End of cancellation policy Show cancellation form Every thought, feeling and behavior has a biological correlate, a physical basis that we can explore. Learn more about biopsychology and the relationship between mind and body here. Sometimes psychology and its concepts seem a bit abstract. Understanding beliefs, emotions, and behavior may seem more philosophical than mundane. However, the truth is that every inner process has a physiological correlate, that is, a representation in the body and in biology that explains why it takes place. And this is what Biopsychology studies. This sub-discipline of psychology analyzes how the healthy brain functions, as well as the factors involved in diseases such as dementia, neurodevelopmental disorders, and depression. In short, the Biopsychology seeks to understand how the brain, nervous system, and neurotransmitters influence mental processes.
History and development of biopsychology
The idea that the mind and the body are interconnected, that the biological and the psychological are intimately linked, goes back a long way. Even ancient thinkers and philosophers stated that the mind resides in the brain and that the nervous system mediates between the stimuli we receive from the environment and our reactions. Later, theories such as phrenology were developed, which stated that personality traits could be determined by the shape of the skull (its structure, protrusions, and recesses). Although it was rejected, the hypothesis that mental functions are located in specific areas of the brain gained momentum. Thanks to technological advances and innovative techniques such as brain scans, we are now able to these physical correlates of thoughts, feelings and behavior. This allows us to intervene more effectively. Today’s imaging techniques allow us to see biological changes caused by thoughts in real time.
What does biopsychology study?
Biopsychology is also known as physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, or psychobiology. As mentioned earlier, it studies the relationship between psychological processes and their underlying physiological events. To better understand its foundations, let’s look at the following principles that guide it:
- Psychology is considered a laboratory science.
- Every behavior and psychological process can be explained on the basis of biological concepts. All are a consequence of genetics and biology.
- Most human behaviors are evolutionary in nature and have evolved to adapt to the environment.
- Comparative methods are used to better understand human behavior by studying different species.
- Heredity and genetics are studied as well as brain structure, nervous and endocrine systems, and neurotransmitters.
In addition to these principles, there are certain phenomena to which this science pays particular attention:
- Biological rhythms
- Metabolism and hormonal processes
- Behavioral patterns, which have to do with to do with
- Emotions, learning, memory and cognition
- The effects of drugs and medications on the function of the nervous system
- The physical principles involved in the processes of sensation and perception of internal and external stimuli
What is it used for and what are its applications?
The applications of biopsychology can focus on basic or applied research. In the first case, the aim is to advance knowledge out of scientific curiosity. In addition, applied research promotes interventions that address a need and provide solutions. Observational methods, in which data are collected without changing the variables involved, are used to arrive at the desired findings. However, experiments are also used to explore the causes of various phenomena. In this context research is conducted on both humans and animals. This makes it possible to understand the phylogenetic evolution of behavior patterns, from the simplest species (where it is easier to uncover the links between brain and behavior) to the most complex. Psychobiologists work and are involved in a variety of fields, from research to the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, they develop clinical applications and work in areas such as neurology, where they treat patients with various injuries or diseases:
- Anger behaviors
- Mood disorders
- Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and other dementias
Biopsychology provides foundations for the treatment and management of dementia.
Knowledge from biopsychology also plays an important role in education and childhood. Its findings can support appropriate early stimulation that promotes learning and harnesses the potential of brain plasticity. In addition, it is also useful in approaches such as mindfulness to understand how a person can improve attention and mindfulness. It can even help understand how psychological processes promote or hinder physical recovery after surgery or illness. In short, the Biopsychology reminds us of the close relationship between mind and body and of the need to understand them together for better understanding and effective interventions to improve well-being. You may also be interested in… Nature Of Biopsychology.
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