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The cerebrum and its four lobes
The cerebrum is the youngest part of the brain and also the most developed. It can be divided into several subunits. These are roughly the 4 lobes, which can be seen by looking at the brain from the outside.
First there is the Occipital lobe in the figure on the right side. This is, roughly described, responsible for the processing of visual (i.e. sight) stimuli. This means that when we see something with our eyes, the information is sent to the occipital lobe and this connects and interprets the incoming information in a meaningful way, so that we recognize objects, people and places.
The parietal lobe connects to the upper occipital lobe and is mainly responsible for attentional processes and sensory perceptions. Sensory sensations refer to information received via the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Consequently, damage can lead to a loss of sensory perception in certain areas of our body and to a loss of concentration.
The temporal lobe, which is also connected to the occipital lobe contains the auditory cortex. This is responsible for processing information from acoustic stimuli. This means that when our ear picks up a sound signal, this is passed on to the auditory cortex. It decodes the information and lets us recognize the tones and sounds. Furthermore, in the temporal lobe is the Wernicke area, which is responsible for speech comprehension. If this area is damaged, we find it difficult to understand what other people are saying.
The fourth and last lobe is the Frontal Lobe. It has many different tasks. On the one hand, it is important for motor function, which means for the movement of different muscle groups. Furthermore, the frontal lobe lies Broca’s area. Broca’s area is responsible for speech production. There is often still a demarcation of the most anterior part of the frontal lobe. It is called the prefrontal cortex and is the youngest part of the cortex, the outer cortex of the brain. The cortex is much more prominent in humans than in other mammals. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the so-called control of our actions (executive functions). responsible. This refers to complex mental functions, such as planning movements and actions, or inhibiting certain actions. Damage can lead to deficits in action planning, but also to slowing down in the execution of actions. Furthermore, it can lead to difficulties in making ethical and moral decisions. Affected persons often show indifferent behavior. However, it is important to realize that the brain is always always works in networks, which means that, for example, damage in the parietal lobe parietal lobe does not always have to lead to an attention disorder, but damage in another area (e.g. in the frontal lobe) can also lead to an attention disorder. Editors Dr. Hartwig Hanser, Waldkirch (project management) Christine Scholtyssek (assistance) Expert advisors Prof. Albert Ludolph, Ulm Prof. Lothar Pickenhain, Leipzig Prof. Heinrich Reichert, Basel Prof. Manfred Spitzer, Ulm Authors Aertsen, Prof., Ad, Freiburg Aguzzi, Prof., Adriano, Zürich Baier, Dr., Harmut, Ulm Bartels, Prof., Mathias, Tübingen Becker, Dr., Andreas, Marburg Born, Prof., Jan, Lübeck Brecht, Dr., Stephan, Kiel Breer, Prof., Heinz, Stuttgart Carenini, Dr., Stefano, Würzburg Cruse, Prof., Holk, Bielefeld Culmsee, Dr., Carsten, Marburg Denzer, Dr., Alain, Waldenburg Egert, Dr., Ulrich, Freiburg Ehrenstein, Dr., Walter, Dortmund Eurich, Dr., Christian , Bremen Eysel, Prof., Ulf, Bochum Fischbach, Prof., Karl-Friedrich, Freiburg Frey, Dunja, Basel Fuhr, Dr., Peter, Basel Greenlee, Prof., Marc, Oldenburg Hartmann, Beate, Basel Heck, Dr., Detlef, Freiburg Heller, Prof., Kurt, Munich Henkel , Dr., Rolf , Bremen Herdegen, Prof., Thomas, Kiel Herrmann, Dr., Gudrun, Bern Hilbig, Dr., Heidegard, Leipzig Hirth, Dr., Frank, Basel Huber, Dr., Gerhard, Zurich Hund, Martin, Basel Illing, Dr., Robert Benjamin, Freiburg Käch, Dr., Stefanie, Basel Kästler, Dr., Hans, Ulm Kaiser, Dr., Reinhard, Freiburg Kaluza, Jan, Stuttgart Kapfhammer, Dr., Josef P., Freiburg Kestler, Dr., Hans, Ulm Kittmann, Dr., Rolf, Freiburg Klix, Prof., Friedhart , Berlin Klonk, Dr., Sabine, Stuttgart Klumpp, Prof., Susanne, Marburg Kössl, Dr., Manfred, Munich Köster, Dr., Bernd, Freiburg Kraetschmar, Dr., Gerhard, Ulm Krieglstein, Prof., Josef, Marburg Krieglstein, Prof., Kerstin, Homburg Kuschinsky, Prof., Wolfgang, Heidelberg Lahrtz, Stephanie, Hamburg Landgraf, Dr., Uta, Stegen Laux, Thorsten, Basel Lindemann, Prof., Bernd, Homburg Löffler, Dr., Sabine, Leipzig Ludolph, Prof., Albert, Ulm Malessa, Dr., Rolf, Weimar Marksitzer, Dr., Rene, Lucerne Martin, Dr., Peter, Kehl-Kork Martini, Prof., Rudolf, Würzburg Medicus, Dr., Gerhard, Thaur Mehraein, Dr., Susan, Freiburg Meier, Dr., Kirstin, Freiburg Mendelowitsch, Dr., Aminadav, Basel Mergner, Prof., Thomas, Freiburg Metzinger, Dr., Thomas, Frankfurt am Main Mielke, Dr., Kirsten, Kiel Misgeld, Prof., Ulrich, Heidelberg Moll, Joachim, Basel Münte, Prof., Thomas, Magdeburg Neumann, Dr., Harald, Planegg-Martinsried Nitsch, Prof., Cordula, Basel Oehler, Prof., Jochen, Dresden Otten, Prof., Uwe, Basel Palm, Prof., Günther, Ulm Pawelzik, Prof., Klaus, Bremen Pickenhain, Prof., Lothar, Leipzig Ravati, Alexander, Marburg Reichel, Dr., Dirk, Lübeck Reichert, Prof., Heinrich, Basel Reinhard, Dr., Eva, Bern Rieckmann, Dr., Peter, Würzburg Riemann, Prof., Dieter, Freiburg Ritter, Prof., Helge, Bielefeld Roth, Prof., Gerhard , Bremen Roth, Lukas W.A., Bern Rotter, Dr., Stefan, Freiburg Rubin, Dr., Beatrix, Basel Ruth, Dr., Peter, Giessen Schaller, Dr., Bernhard, Basel Schedlowski, Prof., Manfred, Essen Schneider, Dr., Werner X., Munich Scholtyssek, Christine, Umkirch Schwegler, Prof., Helmut , Bremen Schwenker, Dr., Friedhelm, Ulm Singer, Prof., Wolf, Frankfurt am Main Spiegel, Dr., Roland, Zurich Spitzer, Prof., Manfred, Ulm Steck, Prof., Andreas, Basel Steinlechner, Prof., Stephan, Hannover Stephan, Dr., Achim, Rüsselsheim Stoeckli, Dr., Esther, Basel Stürzel, Frank, Freiburg Swandulla, Prof., Dieter, Erlangen Tolnay, Dr., Markus, Basel Unsicker, Prof., Klaus, Heidelberg Vaas, Rüdiger, Bietigheim-Bissingen van Velthoven-Wurster, Dr., Vera, Freiburg Walter, Dr., Henrik, Ulm Wicht, Dr., Helmut, Frankfurt Wolf, Prof., Gerald, Magdeburg Wullimann, Prof., Mario, Bremen Zeilhofer, Dr., Hans-Ulrich, Erlangen Zimmermann, Prof., Manfred, Heidelberg All NetDoktor.de content is reviewed by medical journalists. The Cerebrum (cerebrum, endbrain or telencephalon) form the largest part of the brain. Its division into two hemispheres is reflected at the functional level – each side has specific tasks. Different functions can also be seen in the division of the cerebrum into different lobes. Read everything important about the cerebrum: function, division into different brain regions and bars, brain diseases and damage in this area!
- What is the function of the cerebrum?
- Where is the cerebrum located?
- What problems can the cerebrum cause?
What is the cerebrum?
The cerebrum (cerebrum or endbrain) makes up the main part of the human brain. It consists of a right and a left half (hemisphere), the two connected by the bar (corpus callosum). Apart from the bar, there are other (smaller) connections (commissures) between the two halves of the brain. External division of the cerebrum The two cerebral hemispheres can each be divided into four lobes:
- Frontal lobe or frontal lobe (lobus frontalis).
- parietal lobe (lobus parietalis)
- Temporal lobe or temporal lobe (lobus temporalis)
- Occipital lobe or occipital lobe (lobus occipitalis)
The surface of the two cerebral hemispheres is furrowed like a walnut and thus significantly enlarged. The numerous cerebral convolutions (gyri) are separated from each other by furrows (sulci). Internal structure of the cerebrum The cerebrum is divided into an outer part (cortex cerebri, gray matter) and an inner part (medulla, white matter). The cerebral cortex (cortex cerebri) is between two and five millimeters thick. It consists of the isocortex (or neocortex) and the underlying allocortex. The isocortex has six layers and makes up about 90 percent of the cerebral cortex. The allocortex is developmentally older and has a three-layered structure. The developmentally oldest part of the allocortex is called the paleocortex. Together with the somewhat younger archicortex, it forms the allocortex. The cerebral cortex consists of the cell bodies of billions of neurons (including pyramidal cells) and glial cells. The nerve cells have long processes (axons) in all directions. The medulla of the cerebrum consists of these nerve cell processes, which enable communication even with distant cells.
What is the function of the cerebrum?
The cerebrum is the highest instance of the central nervous system. As a communication center, it connects all of our organs, organ systems and tissues and coordinates them with each other. Thus, stimuli from the environment as well as from within our organism are received via receptors, transmitted to the brain via ascending nerve pathways, and then assessed and processed in the cerebrum and cerebral cortex. Depending on the nature of the stimuli, a response then occurs in the form of stimuli that are given to the periphery, internal organs and organ systems via descending nerve pathways. However, not all stimuli reach the cerebral cortex. Some information is processed quite rapidly and without reaching consciousness in “lower” brain regions. For example, central respiratory regulation occurs in the medulla oblongata (extended spinal cord or afterbrain). Each cerebral hemisphere is specialized for specific tasks: the left cerebral areas usually house language and logic, while the right cerebral areas house creativity and the sense of direction. Homunculus (brain) The cerebral cortex has various motor and somatosensitive areas that are assigned to specific body parts. Thereby, neighboring body parts are “mapped” onto neighboring brain areas. This results in the model of a small, size-distorted human, called a homunculus. The function of different cerebral areas The neocortex houses, among other things, the ability to learn, speak and think, as well as consciousness and memory. In the frontal brain (frontal lobe or frontal brain) are the centers for voluntary movements and for the control and coordination of autonomic, affective, and mental functions. In the motor speech center (Broca’s area), the muscles that are important for speech are represented – in the left hemisphere of the brain for right-handed people, and in the right hemisphere for left-handed people. The center for the movements of the eye muscles is also located in the frontal brain. In the parietal lobe or parietal lobe of the cerebrum is the body sensation sphere, represented by sensory pathways that come from the skin and muscles and pass through the thalamus into the primary sensory cortical fields of the parietal lobe. Secondary sensitive cortical fields store memories of sensations that originated in the primary cortical fields. In the temporal lobe or temporal lobe, the primary auditory center, the end of the auditory pathway, lies on the outer surface. Connected posteriorly is the secondary auditory center, the auditory memory center. Some sections of the auditory center scan the constant flood of noise that flows into the brain via the ear for familiar sounds and classify them accordingly. In the temporal lobe and partly also in the parietal lobe is the Wernicke area, which is mainly crucial for understanding language. The Wernicke and Broca areas form the language center in the brain. The occipital lobe contains the visual cortex, which is divided into a primary and a secondary visual center. Visual signals arrive here via the visual pathway, are processed and interpreted. In the secondary visual center optical memory images are stored.
Where is the cerebrum located?
The cerebrum is located under the top of the skull. The frontal lobe is located in the anterior fossa, and the temporal lobe is located in the middle fossa.
What problems can the cerebrum cause?
Diseases and injuries in the cerebrum can have diverse consequences, depending on where in the cerebrum and how pronounced the damage is. Irritation of the motor centers in the frontal brain causes convulsions (cortical epilepsy), and destruction of these centers initially leads to paralysis of the muscles on the other side of the body (hemiplegia). Later, adjacent cerebral fields and/or those on the opposite side may take over. If secondary motor cortical fields in the frontal brain are destroyed, the ability to perform purposeful movements acquired during life disappears. Although the primary centers are intact and there is no muscle paralysis, affected individuals cannot speak (motor aphasia – Broca’s aphasia) or write (agraphia). When Broca’s area is damaged, the patient can usually still understand speech, but has difficulty forming words and sentences on his or her own. In milder cases, affected individuals can still communicate in a staccato telegram style. If the primary sensitive cortical fields of the parietal lobe are damaged, anesthesia, insensitivity, results. Injuries to the secondary sensitive cortical fields cause agnosia – the inability to detect objects by palpation. Disturbances on the left side, where the reading center with a memory of the meaning of characters is located, result in the inability to read (alexia). If the auditory center in the temporal lobe is damaged, the so-called cortical deafness develops. In this case, even a one-sided, total disturbance is sufficient to cause deafness in both ears. This is because in order to hear, the auditory pathways of both ears to the auditory cortex in the two hemispheres of the cerebrum must be intact. Injuries or brain hemorrhages in this region cause the patient to have difficulty decoding speech. He talks like a waterfall, but his flood of words is confused and incomprehensible. A disturbance of the secondary auditory center in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum leads to the fact that earlier impressions are no longer remembered and thus words, sounds, music are no longer understood (the so-called soul deafness). Destruction of certain districts of the cerebral cortex in the area of the visual center (brain) due to a tumor or stroke leads to visual field loss. Complete destruction of the visual cortex on both sides in the cerebrum results in so-called cortical blindness – affected persons are blind although their retina and visual pathway are intact. At best, they can still distinguish light from dark and recognize motion stimuli. When the secondary visual center (brain) in the occipital lobe in the cerebrum is destroyed, soul blindness results. Affected persons cannot recognize objects again because memory is extinguished and comparison with earlier visual impressions is no longer possible.
Author & source information
Scientific Standards: This text complies with the requirements of medical literature, medical guidelines, and current studies and has been reviewed by medical professionals. Author: Eva Rudolf-Müller Eva Rudolf-Müller is a freelance writer in the NetDoktor medical editorial team. She studied human medicine and newspaper science and has repeatedly worked in both fields – as a physician in the clinic, as a reviewer, as well as a medical journalist for various professional journals. Currently, she works in online journalism, where a wide range of medicine is offered to all. Sources:
- Kahle, W. & Frotscher, M.: Pocket Atlas of Anatomy, Volume 3 Nervous System and Sensory Organs, Georg Thieme Verlag, 10th edition, 2009.
- Kirsch, J. et al.: Pocket Textbook of Anatomy, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1st edition, 2010
- Klinke, R. & Silbernagl, S.: Textbook of Physiology. Thieme Verlag, 4th edition, 2005
- Poeck, K. & Hacke, W.: Neurology, Springer-Verlag, 12th edition, 2006
- Pschyrembel Clinical Dictionary, Walter de Gruyter Publishers, 262nd edition, 2010.
- Waldeyer, A.: Anatomy of the human being, Walter de Gruyter publishing house, 17th edition, 2002
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0 – very unlikely 10 – very likely Because certain areas in the brain control specific functions, the location of the damage determines which function is affected.
Parts of the brain
Which side of the brain is affected is also important because the two sides of the brain (cerebral hemispheres) have different functions. Some functions of the brain can only be performed by one hemisphere. For example, movement and sensory perception of one side of the body are controlled by the opposite hemisphere. Other functions are mainly performed by one hemisphere, which is dominant for that function; the other hemisphere is said to be non-dominant. For example, speech is controlled by the left hemisphere in most people. This characteristic is referred to as left-sided language dominance. Damage to only one hemisphere of the brain can lead to complete loss of such a function. However, most functions (such as memory) require coordination of multiple areas in both hemispheres. For such functions to be completely lost, both hemispheres must be damaged. Certain patterns of dysfunction can be related to the brain regions that have been damaged. Diagnosis of the form of dysfunction is made based on examination of the affected person. Questions are asked to evaluate specific brain functions. Usually, imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are necessary to determine the cause of the damage.
- Initiation of many actions
- Control of learned motor skills, such as writing, playing musical instruments, and tying shoelaces
- Control of complex intellectual processes, such as language, thinking, concentration, problem solving, and planning ahead
- Control of facial expressions and hand and arm gestures
- Coordination of facial expressions and gestures with mood and emotions
In general, damage to the frontal lobes (frontal lobes) results in loss of the ability to solve problems, plan, and initiate actions, such as crossing the street or answering a complex question (sometimes called executive functions). But some specific impairments vary depending on which part of the frontal lobe is damaged. If the posterior part of the frontal lobe is affected (which controls voluntary movements), it can lead to muscle weakness or paralysis. Since each side of the brain controls movements of the other half of the body, damage to the left side will cause muscle weakness on the right side and vice versa. If the middle part of the frontal lobe is damaged, affected individuals may be apathetic, inattentive and unmotivated. They think more slowly and respond to questions very delayed. If the anterior part of the frontal lobe is damaged, the following impairments may occur:
- Difficulty retaining information for short periods of time, which is then processed further (working memory).
- Decreased speech fluency
- Apathy (lack of emotion, interest, and concern)
- Delayed response to questions
- Noticeable restraint, including socially inappropriate behavior
People who have lost their inhibitions may be inappropriately euphoric or depressed, argumentative or passive and vulgar. They do not care about the consequences of their behavior. They may also repeat what they say. Some people develop similar symptoms in old age or dementia. These symptoms may result from degeneration of the frontal lobe.
Damage to specific brain regions and its consequences
Different areas of the brain control specific functions. Which brain region is damaged therefore determines which function is lost.
- Interpretation of sensory information from the rest of the body
- Linking sensory impressions of shape, structure and weight to general perceptions
- Influence on mathematical abilities and language comprehension
- Storing spatial memories that enable orientation in space (knowing where you are) and directional orientation (knowing where you are going)
- Processing information that helps people be aware of the position of their body parts
Certain functions tend to be controlled more by one of the parietal lobes (usually the left one). If this controls language, it is called the dominant lobe. The other lobe (non-dominant) performs other functions, for example, through it a person knows where they are in space. Damage to the parietal or parietal lobe in the anterior region leads to numbness and impaired sensation on the opposite side of the body. Affected individuals have difficulty identifying the location of a sensory sensation and its type (pain, heat, cold, vibration). They may have difficulty recognizing objects by feel (that is, based on their texture and shape). If the middle part damaged, those affected cannot distinguish the right side from the left (right-left disorientation) and have problems with arithmetic and writing. They may have difficulty feeling where their body parts are located (perception also called depth sensitivity or proprioceptive perception).
- Generation of memory and feelings
- Immediate processing of events in short- and long-term memory.
- Storage and retrieval of long-term memories
- Understanding sounds and images, enabling people to recognize other people and objects, and to integrate hearing and speech
Are of the right temporal lobe are damaged, memory are damaged, memory for sounds and music may be impaired. Consequently, affected individuals may have problems singing. The occipital lobes have the following functions:
- Processing and interpreting vision
- Enabling the formation of visual memories
- Integrate visual perceptions with spatial information provided by the adjacent parietal lobes (parietal lobes)
Are both sides of the occipital lobe of the brain are damaged, affected individuals cannot recognize objects even though their eyes function normally. This condition is called cortical blindness. Some people with cortical blindness are not aware that they cannot see. Instead, they often invent descriptions of things they see (called confabulations). This disorder is called Anton syndrome. Seizures, which involve the occipital lobe, can cause visual hallucinations. For example, affected individuals may see lines of color when they look in a certain direction. The limbic lobe cerebrum includes structures deep in the cerebrum and some parts of the adjacent lobes, such as the temporal lobe. These structures perform the following tasks:
- Receiving and classifying information from different areas of the brain, allowing one to experience and express emotions
- Formation and retrieval of memories
- Linking memories and the feelings experienced while forming the memories
If the limbic lobe is damaged, it usually leads to various problems. Seizures resulting from damage to the temporal lobe in the limbic lobe usually last only a few minutes. Sufferers may not be able to control their emotions or think clearly at first. Or they may smell bad odors that are not there (a type of hallucination). They may seem completely unaware of their surroundings and perform automatic movements, such as repeated swallowing or smacking. During seizures, some sufferers show personality changes such as humorlessness, unusual religiosity, and obsessions. Sufferers may also have an overwhelming urge to write. Many brain functions are only possible because multiple brain regions work together as networks. Damage to this network can cause the following: Dysarthria Dysarthria is an articulation disorder, meaning words are not pronounced correctly. Speech may be choppy, staccato, breathy, irregular, imprecise,… Learn More (an articulation disorder, meaning words are not pronounced correctly) can be caused by damage to areas of the brain or cranial nerves that control the muscles involved in speech formation. It can also be caused by damage to the nerve fibers that connect these areas. Mt 15 150Cc Price.
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